Table 6: Summary of differences between element concentrations after footbath runs with feet and without feet.

Elements (μg/L)Post-FBS–Pre-FBS no feetPost-FBS–Pre-FBS with feetP value
Mean ± Std devMean ± Std dev

Aluminum§14.17 ± 12.225.00 ± 58.430.487
Antimony§1.00 ± 0.631.21 ± 1.500.8859
Arsenic§4.50 ± 0.845.58 ± 1.020.016
Barium§5.00 ± 5.486.04 ± 4.890.911
Boron3.33 ± 5.164.04 ± 9.120.814
Cadmium§5.50 ± 2.438.04 ± 2.800.064
Calcium1,206.67 ± 893.37−231.04 ± 1,354.990.02
Chromium17,286.67 ± 4,239.6523,546.21 ± 4,782.520.003
Cobalt248.17 ± 44.02331.05 ± 57.690.001
Copper253.33 ± 64.39456.71 ± 318.010.162
Iron88,388.17 ± 17,532.11114,200.08 ± 23,447.220.008
Lead§0.33 ± 1.370.00 ± 0.780.909
Lithium1.17 ± 2.860.25 ± 0.940.994
Magnesium405.00 ± 427.73−128.67 ± 509.110.024
Manganese1,235.00 ± 211.831,638.58 ± 275.260.001
Molybdenum2,505.17 ± 438.103,515.50 ± 567.160.001
Nickel11,621.00 ± 2,075.5515,943.92 ± 2,769.510.001
Phosphorus37.33 ± 21.7344.29 ± 26.820.502
Potassium−11.67 ± 163.64489.21 ± 162.18< 0.0001
Selenium0.00 ± 0.000.77 ± 0.640.010
Silicon1,003.33 ± 170.371,338.38 ± 238.360.003
Silver§0.000.00
Sodium19,190.00 ± 38,454.88−1,958.58 ± 6,064.230.016
Strontium3.17 ± 10.94−11.67 ± 9.950.009
Sulfur−628.33 ± 1,253.99−496.79 ± 2,448.860.490
Uranium§0.00 ± 0.000.04 ± 0.360.731
Vanadium42.50 ± 11.7159.04 ± 12.660.005
Zinc16.67 ± 10.3316.63 ± 7.650.956

Total142,837.17 ± 36,748.30158,783.82 ± 34,556.210.2962

Array components122,540.83 ± 24,659.98160,970.43 ± 31,896.700.0051
Essential elements20,265.83 ± 39,878.15−2,212.53 ± 8,230.330.1011
PTEs§30.50 ± 19.8525.92 ± 58.460.8697

§PTEs: potentially toxic elements were defined to be aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, lead, silver, and uranium.
Essential elements were defined to be boron, calcium, lithium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, strontium, sulphur, vanadium, and zinc.
Array components were defined to be chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and silicon.
Bold indicates a statistically significant difference, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 (Mann-Whitney U-test).