About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 354151, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/354151
Clinical Study

Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6K 4C1
2Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4

Received 10 August 2011; Accepted 4 October 2011

Academic Editor: Gerry Schwalfenberg

Copyright © 2012 Stephen J. Genuis and Thomas P. Bouchard. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Canada Statistics, “Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex, 2006 Census,” Catalogue, no. 97-551-XIE, 2006.
  2. H. A. Fink, K. E. Ensrud, D. B. Nelson et al., “Disability after clinical fracture in postmenopausal women with low bone density: the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT),” Osteoporosis International, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Harvey, E. Dennison, and C. Cooper, “Osteoporosis: impact on health and economics,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 99–105, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Papaioannou, S. Morin, A. M. Cheung et al., “2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary,” CMAJ, vol. 182, no. 17, pp. 1864–1873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Keen, “Osteoporosis: strategies for prevention and management,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 109–122, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Bonura, “Prevention, screening, and management of osteoporosis: an overview of the current strategies,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 5–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. J. Gallacher and T. Dixon, “Impact of treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis (bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, strontium ranelate, and denosumab) on bone quality: a systematic review,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 469–484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Huas, F. Debiais, F. Blotman et al., “Compliance and treatment satisfaction of post menopausal women treated for osteoporosis,” BMC Women's Health, vol. 10, article 26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Wassertheil-Smoller, S. L. Hendrix, M. Limacher et al., “Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women—the women's health initiative: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 20, pp. 2673–2684, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. A. Shumaker, C. Legault, S. R. Rapp et al., “Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women—the women's health initiative memory study: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 20, pp. 2651–2662, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. E. Sellmeyer, “Atypical fractures as a potential complication of long-term bisphosphonate therapy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 304, no. 13, pp. 1480–1484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. A. Migliorati, M. M. Schubert, D. E. Peterson, and L. M. Seneda, “Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of mandibular and maxillary bone: an emerging oral complication of supportive cancer therapy,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 83–93, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. A. Howard, B. J. Barnes, J. L. Vacek, W. Chen, and S. M. Lai, “Impact of bisphosphonates on the risk of atrial fibrillation,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Green, G. Czanner, G. Reeves, J. Watson, L. Wise, and V. Beral, “Oral bisphosphonates and risk of cancer of oesophagus, stomach, and colorectum: case-control analysis within a UK primary care cohort,” BMJ, vol. 341, Article ID c4444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. R. Cardwell, C. C. Abnet, M. M. Cantwell, and L. J. Murray, “Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of esophageal cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 304, no. 6, pp. 657–663, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. J. Genuis and G. K. Schwalfenberg, “Picking a bone with contemporary osteoporosis management: nutrient strategies to enhance skeletal integrity,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 193–207, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. W. Nieves, “Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1232S–1239S, 2005. View at Scopus
  18. K. D. Cashman, “Diet, nutrition, and bone health,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 11, pp. 2507S–2512S, 2007. View at Scopus
  19. D. Feskanich, P. Weber, W. C. Willett, H. Rockett, S. L. Booth, and G. A. Colditz, “Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 1999. View at Scopus
  20. M. Ryan-Harshman and W. Aldoori, “Bone health: new role for vitamin K?” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 50, pp. 993–997, 2004. View at Scopus
  21. P. J. Meunier, C. Roux, E. Seeman et al., “The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 5, pp. 459–468, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. J. Marie, P. Ammann, G. Boivin, and C. Rey, “Mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of strontium in bone,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 121–129, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Ortolani and S. Vai, “Strontium ranelate: an increased bone quality leading to vertebral antifracture efficacy at all stages,” Bone, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. S19–S22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Y. Reginster, R. Deroisy, M. Dougados, I. Jupsin, J. Colette, and C. Roux, “Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by strontium ranelate: the randomized, two-year, double-masked, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled PREVOS trial,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 925–931, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Cesareo, C. Napolitano, and M. Iozzino, “Strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment: a critical appraisal,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Scopus
  26. R. K. Rude and H. E. Gruber, “Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 710–716, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. A. Weiss, E. Barrett-Connor, and D. Von Mühlen, “Ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and bone mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 934–938, 2005. View at Scopus
  28. M. C. Kruger and D. F. Horrobin, “Calcium metabolism, osteoporosis and essential fatty acids: a review,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 36, no. 2-3, pp. 131–151, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Albertazzi and K. Coupland, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Is there a role in postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention,” Maturitas, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Salari, A. Rezaie, B. Larijani, and M. Abdollahi, “A systematic review of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in bone health and osteoporosis,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. RA37–RA44, 2008. View at Scopus
  31. L. Bessette, L. G. Ste-Marie, S. Jean et al., “Recognizing osteoporosis and its consequences in Quebec (ROCQ): background, rationale, and methods of an anti-fracture patient health-management programme,” Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 194–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Papaioannou, L. Giangregorio, B. Kvern, P. Boulos, G. Ioannidis, and J. D. Adachi, “The osteoporosis care gap in Canada,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 5, article no. 11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Papaioannou, C. C. Kennedy, G. Ioannidis et al., “The osteoporosis care gap in men with fragility fractures: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 581–587, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. J. Genuis, “Sensitivity-related illness: the escalating pandemic of allergy, food intolerance and chemical sensitivity,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 24, pp. 6047–6061, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Feskanich, W. C. Willett, and G. A. Colditz, “Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 504–511, 2003. View at Scopus
  36. D. P. Trivedi, R. Doll, and K. T. Khaw, “Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 326, no. 7387, pp. 469–472, 2003. View at Scopus
  37. M. F. Holick, “Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 362–371, 2004. View at Scopus
  38. B. Y. Y. Lau, W. E. Ward, J. X. Kang, and D. W. L. Ma, “Fat-1 gene modulates the fatty acid composition of femoral and vertebral phospholipids,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 447–455, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. M. Tang, G. D. Eslick, C. Nowson, C. Smith, and A. Bensoussan, “Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9588, pp. 657–666, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. R. Reid, M. J. Bolland, and A. Grey, “Effect of calcium supplementation on hip fractures,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1119–1123, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. J. Bolland, A. Avenell, J. A. Baron et al., “Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis,” BMJ, vol. 341, Article ID c3691, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Niu, R. Ahola, H. Guo et al., “Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 568–577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. Korpelainen, S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, J. Heikkinen, K. Väänänen, and J. Korpelainen, “Effect of impact exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women with low BMD: a population-based randomized controlled 30-month intervention,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 109–118, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. D. M. Black, S. R. Cummings, D. B. Karpf et al., “Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures,” Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9041, pp. 1535–1541, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. S. T. Harris, N. B. Watts, H. K. Genant et al., “Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 14, pp. 1344–1352, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. B. H. Arjmandi, C. D. Johnson, S. C. Campbell, S. Hooshmand, S. C. Chai, and M. P. Akhter, “Combining fructooligosaccharide and dried plum has the greatest effect on restoring bone mineral density among select functional foods and bioactive compounds,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 312–319, 2010. View at Scopus
  47. P. H. Sudmant, J. O. Kitzman, F. Antonacci et al., “Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6004, pp. 641–646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. L. Altshuler, R. M. Durbin, G. R. Abecasis et al., “A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing,” Nature, vol. 467, no. 7319, pp. 1061–1073, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. E. Palomaki, S. Melillo, L. Neveux et al., “Use of genomic profiling to assess risk for cardiovascular disease and identify individualized prevention strategies—a targeted evidence-based review,” Genetics in Medicine, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 772–784, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Lambrecht, K. Tilleman, D. Elewaut, and D. Deforce, “Proteomics in rheumatology: the beginning of a fairy tale?” Proteomics—Clinical Applications, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 411–419, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. H. Brettingham-Moore, C. P. Duong, A. G. Heriot, R. J. S. Thomas, and W. A. Phillips, “Using gene expression profiling to predict response and prognosis in gastrointestinal cancers—the promise and the perils,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1484–1491, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. N. Malandrino and R. J. Smith, “Personalized medicine in diabetes,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 231–240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. D. V. Dimitrov, “The human gutome: nutrigenomics of the host-microbiome interactions,” OMICS, vol. 15, no. 7-8, pp. 419–430, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A. G. Mattar and B. A. Diefel, “Bone tracers: radionucleotide imaging and related techniques,” in Skeletal Research: An Experimental Approach, D. J. Simmons and A. S. Kustrin, Eds., pp. 455–486, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  55. A. R. Johnson, “The influence of strontium on characteristic factors of bone,” Calcified Tissue Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 215–221, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Christoffersen, M. R. Christoffersen, N. Kolthoff, and O. Bärenholdt, “Effects of strontium ions on growth and dissolution of hydroxyapatite and on bone mineral detection,” Bone, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Eisenberg, “The biological metabolism of strontium,” in Biological Mineralization, I. Zipkin, Ed., pp. 435–442, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  58. W. E. Cabrera, I. Schrooten, M. E. De Broe, and P. C. D'Haese, “Strontium and bone,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 661–668, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. D. Grynpas and P. J. Marie, “Effects of low doses of strontium on bone quality and quantity in rats,” Bone, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 313–319, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. J. Marie, M. T. Garba, M. Hott, and L. Miravet, “Effect of low doses of stable strontium on bone metabolism in rats,” Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 1985. View at Scopus
  61. M. Riyat and D. C. Sharma, “An experimental study of the effect of strontium pre-treatment on calcium release from carious and non-carious teeth,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 251–254, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. C. Skoryna, “Metabolic aspects of the pharmacologic uses of trace elements in human subjects with specific references to stable strontium,” in Trace Substances in Environmental Health-XVIII, pp. 3–23. View at Scopus
  63. J. D. Kirshmann, Nutrition Almanac, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 6th edition, 2007.
  64. W. J. Rea, Chemical Sensitivity: Tools of Diagnosis and Methods of Treatment, vol. 4, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1997.
  65. U. G. Kyle and J. A. Coss-Bu, “Nutritional assessment and length of hospital stay,” CMAJ, vol. 182, no. 17, pp. 1831–1832, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. J. Genuis, “Nutritional transition: a determinant of global health,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 615–617, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Sorensen, J. Kondrup, J. Prokopowicz et al., “EuroOOPS: an international, multicentre study to implement nutritional risk screening and evaluate clinical outcome,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 340–349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Wakahara, M. Shiraki, K. Murase et al., “Nutritional screening with Subjective Global Assessment predicts hospital stay in patients with digestive diseases,” Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 634–639, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. U. G. Kyle, L. Genton, and C. Pichard, “Hospital length of stay and nutritional status,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 397–402, 2005. View at Scopus
  70. S. J. Genuis and T. P. Bouchard, “Celiac disease presenting as autism,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 114–119, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. J. Genuis, G. K. Schwalfenberg, M. N. Hiltz, and S. A. Vaselenak, “Vitamin D status of clinical practice populations at higher latitudes: analysis and applications,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 151–173, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. R. Cummings, D. M. Black, M. C. Nevitt et al., “Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures,” Lancet, vol. 341, no. 8837, pp. 72–75, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. L. J. Melton III, E. J. Atkinson, W. M. O'Fallon, H. W. Wahner, and B. L. Riggs, “Long-term fracture prediction by bone mineral assessed at different skeletal sites,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1227–1233, 1993. View at Scopus
  74. P. J. Meunier, “Evidence-based medicine and osteoporosis: a comparison of fracture risk reduction data from osteoporosis randomised clinical trials,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 122–129, 1999. View at Scopus
  75. S. J. Genuis, “Medical practice and community health care in the 21st Century: a time of change,” Public Health, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 671–680, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus