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Figure 1: Interacting factors in the causality of Alzheimer’s disease [1, 411, 17, 19, 28, 35, 72, 73]. Alzheimer’s disease is the result of the interaction of aging, genetic predisposition, and environmental exposures such as air pollution in the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Air pollution is a prevalent environmental source of ROS that impacts the brain through the multiple pathways accelerating the development and clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease. BBB: blood-brain barrier; ROS: reactive oxygen species; CVD: cardiovascular disease.