- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 487681, 12 pages
Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada
1Departments of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, 2888 Shaganappi Trail NW, Calgary, AB, T3B 6A8, Canada
2Department of Emergency Medicine and School of Public Health, University of Alberta and 1G1.50 Walter Mackenzie Centre, 8440–112 Street, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7, Canada
3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3rd Floor TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada
Received 18 September 2012; Accepted 25 October 2012
Academic Editor: Chris Rissel
Copyright © 2012 Nicole T. R. Romanow et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. B. Andersen, P. Schnohr, M. Schroll, and H. O. Hein, “All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 11, pp. 1621–1628, 2000.
- M. Fenton, “Battling America's epidemic of physical inactivity: building more walkable, livable communities,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 37, supplement 2, pp. S115–S120, 2005.
- D. R. Bassett, J. Pucher, R. Buehler, D. L. Thompson, and S. E. Crouter, “Walking, cycling, and obesity rates in Europe, North America and Australia,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 795–814, 2008.
- J. Pucher and R. Buehler, “Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany,” Transport Reviews, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 495–528, 2008.
- J. Pucher and R. Buehler, “Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: a comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies,” Transport Policy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 265–279, 2006.
- J. Pucher, J. Dill, and S. Handy, “Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, supplement, pp. S106–S125, 2010.
- B. E. Saelens, J. F. Sallis, and L. D. Frank, “Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 80–91, 2003.
- K. M. Pollack, C. Kercher, S. Frattaroli, C. Asa-Peek, D. Sleet, and F. P. Rivara, “Towards environments and policies that promote injury-free active living-it wouldn't hurt,” Health & Place, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 106–114, 2012.
- Statistics Canada, Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2006.
- F. P. Rivara, D. C. Thompson, and R. S. Thompson, “Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury,” Injury Prevention, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 110–114, 1997.
- T. J. Mehan, R. Gardner, G. A. Smith, and L. B. McKenzie, “Bicycle-related injuries among children and adolescents in the United States,” Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 2009.
- L. B. Meuleners, A. H. Lee, and C. Haworth, “Emergency presentations by vulnerable road users: implications for injury prevention,” Injury Prevention, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 12–14, 2006.
- G. Li, S. P. Baker, J. E. Smialek, and C. A. Soderstrom, “Use of alcohol as a risk factor for bicycling injury,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 7, pp. 893–896, 2001.
- D. C. Thompson, F. P. Rivara, and R. Thompson, “Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD001855, 2000.
- G. R. McCormack and A. Shiell, “In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults,” International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, article 125, 2012.
- W. Wendel-Vos, M. Droomers, S. Kremers, J. Brug, and F. van Lenthe, “Potential environmental determinants of physical activity in adults: a systematic review,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 425–440, 2007.
- L. Aultman-Hall and F. L. Hall, “Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on- and off-road incident rates,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 29–43, 1998.
- L. Aultman-Hall and M. G. Kaltenecker, “Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 675–686, 1999.
- S. Daniels, T. Brijs, E. Nuyts, and G. Wets, “Injury crashes with bicyclists at roundabouts: influence of some location characteristics and the design of cycle facilities,” Journal of Safety Research, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2009.
- S. Daniels, E. Nuyts, and G. Wets, “The effects of roundabouts on traffic safety for bicyclists: an observational study,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 518–526, 2008.
- S. Wells, B. Mullin, R. Norton et al., “Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash related injury: case-control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7444, pp. 857–860, 2004.
- T. J. Pikora, F. C. L. Bull, K. Jamrozik, M. Knuiman, B. Giles-Corti, and R. J. Donovan, “Developing a reliable audit instrument to measure the physical environment for physical activity,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 187–194, 2002.
- F. E. J. Harrell, K. L. Lee, and D. B. Mark, “Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 15, pp. 361–387, 1996.
- S. Greenland, J. A. Schwartzbaum, and W. D. Finkle, “Problems due to small samples and sparse data in conditional logistic regression analysis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 531–539, 2000.
- R. M. Mickey and S. Greenland, “The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 125–137, 1989.
- M. Bíl, M. Bílová, and I. Müller, “Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1632–1636, 2010.
- S. Chong, R. Poulos, J. Olivier, W. L. Watson, and R. Grzebieta, “Relative injury severity among vulnerable non-motorised road users: comparative analysis of injury arising from bicycle-motor vehicle and bicycle-pedestrian collisions,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 290–296, 2010.
- E. Vittinghoff and C. E. McCulloch, “Relaxing the rule of ten events per variable in logistic and cox regression,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 6, pp. 710–718, 2007.
- L. B. Meuleners, A. H. Lee, and C. Haworth, “Road environment, crash type and hospitalisation of bicyclists and motorcyclists presented to emergency departments in Western Australia,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1222–1225, 2007.
- S. M. Rifaat, R. Tay, and A. de Barros, “Effect of street pattern on the severity of crashes involving vulnerable road users,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 276–283, 2011.
- E. Dumbaugh and W. Li, “Designing for the safety of pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments,” Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 69–88, 2011.
- E. Heinen, B. van Wee, and K. Maat, “Commuting by bicycle: an overview of the literature,” Transport Reviews, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 59–96, 2010.
- C. C. O. Reynolds, M. A. Harris, K. Teschke, P. A. Cripton, and M. Winters, “The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature,” Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, vol. 8, no. 1, article 47, 2009.
- A. C. Lusk, P. G. Furth, P. Morency, L. F. Miranda-Moreno, W. C. Willett, and J. T. Dennerlein, “Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street,” Injury Prevention, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 131–135, 2011.
- J. K. Kim, S. Kim, G. F. Ulfarsson, and L. A. Porrello, “Bicyclist injury severities in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 238–251, 2007.
- P. O. Wanvik, “Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987–2006,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 123–128, 2009.
- R. Bhatia and M. Wier, “‘Safety in Numbers’ re-examined: can we make valid or practical inferences from available evidence?” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 235–240, 2011.
- P. L. Jacobsen, “Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling,” Injury Prevention, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 205–209, 2003.