Table 3: Matched and un-matched logistic regression estimates of the association between environment risk factors and MV/bicyclist collisions.

Matched OR95% CIAdjustment factorsUn-matched OR95% CIAdjustment factors

Traffic volume
 Lowa1Reference b1Reference b
 Meda5.13*1.44, 18.27Riding fast3.49*1.37, 8.88Age
 Higha2.340.75, 7.24Riding fast2.83*1.24, 6.42Age
High speed limit (>30 km/hr)3.180.62, 16.41 b2.590.87, 7.71 b

Land use
 Offices8.80.99, 78.16 b3.010.73, 12.36Age, day/time and riding fast
 Retail5.56*1.72, 17.98Age7.54*3.15, 18.03Age and speed
 Industry2.070.28, 15.43 b3.700.48, 28.82Age and speed
 Services 3.80*1.29, 11.69 b2.020.96, 4.23Age
 Nature0.380.14, 1.00Speed0.44*0.21, 0.91 b

Path characteristics (side 1)
 Type of path
  Sidewalk1Reference1Reference
  No path1.660.14, 19.75Age1.300.43, 3.89Speed
  Multi-use path#0.630.16, 2.51Age1.050.41, 2.68Speed
 Path location (distance from road)
  Within 1 m 1Reference1Reference
  Btw 1 and 3 m 1.020.26, 3.95Sex0.400.14, 1.12Age and day/time
  >3 m 0.170.02, 1.53Age0.160.02, 1.29Age and day/time
 Sloped path1.600.35, 7.36 b1.140.35, 3.71Riding fast
 Path obstructions 1.050.38, 2.93Age1.800.88, 3.70 b

Path characteristics (side 2)
 Type of path
  Sidewalk 1Reference1Reference
  No path0.380.12, 1.26Riding fast 0.680.28, 1.68Age and speed
  Multi-use path#0.610.10, 3.78Riding fast1.690.59, 4.85Age and speed
 Sloped path0.150, 1.99 b0.720.18, 2.98Day/time, riding fast and speed
 Path obstructions3.83*1.03, 14.25 b2.59*1.13, 5.90Speed

Roadway characteristics
 Designated bike lane 0.640.10, 4.19 b1.830.42, 8.02Day/time, riding fast and age
 Parking restrictions3.88*1.31, 11.55 b1.740.85, 3.55Age
 Curb
  Mountable 1Reference1Reference
  Not mountable 3.03*1.04, 8.82Sex1.350.65, 2.82Riding fast
  No curb0.840.13, 5.59Sex0.550.12, 2.56Riding fast
 Curb cuts2.710.84, 8.72 b0.820.38, 1.78Riding fast and age
 Traffic control devices2.74*1.02, 7.35Riding fast1.590.74, 3.45Age and day/time
 Intersection6.89*1.48, 32.14 b2.83*1.11, 7.20Age
 Crossings1.680.62, 4.54 b1.540.73, 3.26Age and day/time
 Crossing aids0.40.10, 1.52 b0.430.16, 1.18Age and speed

Safety characteristics
 Street lights (side 2)2.380.51, 10.99 b1.540.43, 5.58Age
 Lighting over path (side 2)1.030.30, 3.53 b1.700.69, 4.16 b
 Destinations2.41.01, 6.00*Sex2.35*1.11, 4.97Riding fast
Aesthetic characteristics
 >1 tree/block (side 1)3.250.37, 28.46 b1.710.63, 4.63Riding fast
 Tall trees (side 1)2.270.26, 20.06 b1.080.21, 5.45Riding fast
 Natural views0.2*0.07, 0.69Age0.43*0.21, 0.86 b
 Difficult for bicycling2.000.68, 5.92 b1.920.55, 6.66Speed and day/time

MV: motor vehicle; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
*Represents significance based on CI not including the null value.
aLow volume: ≤250 vehicles/hr, medium volume: 250–749 vehicles/hr, high volume: ≥750 vehicles/hr.
bIf model could not accommodate the addition of one or more covariates or there was no evidence of confounding, the crude estimate was retained.