Table 4: Human studies in autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune diseaseStudy design ()Results

Multiple sclerosisProspective cohort studies NHS, NHS II supplementation of vitamin D () [40]40% reduction in developing MS with supplementation of 400 IU vitamin D
Open label progressive supplementation of vitamin D () [41]The number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions was reduced
Randomized control using 1000 IU versus 6000 IU daily of vitamin D2 for 6 months () [42] Vitamin D2 was not effective in reducing MRI lesions in RRMS
Open-label randomized controlled trial () [43]8% in the treatment group had worsening disability versus 38% of patients in the control group
DiabetesBirth cohort study () [57]Use of 2000 IU had a reduced risk of developing diabetes by 78%
Newly diagnosed diabetic children from 1980–2005 () [61]Significant increase in incidence noted after reduction in vitamin D intake recommendation (decreased daily recommendation from 1000 IU to 400 IU)
Meta-analysis of supplementation of vitamin D in infants [56]29% reduction in risk of developing type 1 diabetes
Rheumatoid arthritisProspective cohort study dietary and supplement vitamin D intake () [76]34% reduction in developing RA in the supplement group > 400 IU vitamin D
Open-label trial using high-dose oral alphacalcidiol therapy, () [77]Result in a positive effect on disease activity in 89% of patients
Autoimmune thyroid diseaseNone available to date
Crohn’s diseaseRandomized double-blind placebo-controlled study () [95]1200 IU of vitamin D3 reduced the number of relapses in the treatment group by more than 50% during a 1 yr study