About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 713696, 52 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/713696
Review Article

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

Study Centre for Carcinogenesis and Primary Prevention of Cancer, Department of Radiotherapy and Experimental Cancerology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185 3K3, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

Received 1 March 2012; Revised 10 May 2012; Accepted 10 May 2012

Academic Editor: David O. Carpenter

Copyright © 2012 Sam De Coster and Nicolas van Larebeke. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [69 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Blanca Laffon, Francisco Aguilera, Julia Ríos-Vázquez, Julia García-Lestón, Dietmar Fuchs, Vanessa Valdiglesias, and Eduardo Pásaro, “Endocrine and immunological parameters in individuals involved in Prestige spill cleanup tasks seven years after the exposure,” Environment International, vol. 59, pp. 103–111, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ling-I Hsu, Yuan-Hung Wang, Hung-Yi Chiou, Meei-Maan Wu, Tse-Yen Yang, Yu-Hsin Chen, Chin-Hsiao Tseng, and Chien-Jen Chen, “The association of diabetes mellitus with subsequent internal cancers in the arsenic-exposed area of Taiwan,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 73, pp. 452–459, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yue Xi, Dehua Li, and Wei San, “Exposure to the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol alters structure and function of thyroid gland in rats,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 185, pp. 52–56, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ulf Magnusson, and Karl Ljungvall, “Environmental pollutants and dysregulation of male puberty–a comparison among species,” Reproductive Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luca Fontana, Veruscka Leso, and Antonio Bergamaschi, “The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 16732–16801, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Brandy W. Riffle, W. Matthew Henderson, and Susan C. Laws, “Measurement of steroids in rats after exposure to an endocrine disruptor: Mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay demonstrate similar results,” Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elisa De Laurentiis, Marco Minella, Mohamed Sarakha, Alessandro Marrese, Claudio Minero, Gilles Mailhot, Marcello Brigante, and Davide Vione, “Photochemical processes involving the UV absorber benzophenone-4 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid) in aqueous solution. Reaction pathways and implications for surface waters,” Water Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J. Shen, L. Xu, H. Fang, A. M. Richard, J. D. Bray, R. S. Judson, G. Zhou, T. J. Colatsky, J. L. Aungst, C. Teng, S. C. Harris, W. Ge, S. Y. Dai, Z. Su, A. C. Jacobs, W. Harrouk, R. Perkins, W. Tong, and H. Hong, “EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity,” Toxicological Sciences, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pasquale Ventrice, Domenica Ventrice, Emilio Russo, and Giovambattista De Sarro, “Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Osvaldo J. Ponzo, and Carbone Silvia, “Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV-B filters, Phtalates and Nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender,” Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sanna Lignell, Marie Aune, Per Ola Darnerud, Annika Hanberg, Susanna C. Larsson, and Anders Glynn, “Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may influence birth weight among infants in a Swedish cohort with background exposure: a cross-sectional study,” Environmental Health, vol. 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francisco Carmona, Angeles Martínez-Zamora, María L. Bassols, and Juan Balasch, “Environmental influences on the development of endometriosis,” Journal of Endometriosis, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 49–61, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiu-Min Wang, “Early life programming and metabolic syndrome,” World Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marc Le Vee, Elise Kolasa, Elodie Jouan, Nicolas Collet, and Olivier Fardel, “Differentiation of human placental BeWo cells by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A.M.M. Essa, and S.M. Fathy, “Sex hormonal disruption by cyanobacterial bioactive compounds,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 700–709, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sonia A. Ronchetti, Eliana A. Miler, Beatriz H. Duvilanski, and Jimena P. Cabilla, “Cadmium Mimics Estrogen-Driven Cell Proliferation and Prolactin Secretion from Anterior Pituitary Cells,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • D. A. Gibson, and P. T. K. Saunders, “Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers,” Endocrine Related Cancer, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. T13–T31, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Drazen Lusic, Natalija Ursulin-Trstenjak, Darija Vukic Lusic, Zdenko Smit, and Karlo Jurica, “Exposure To Phtalates And Their Presence In Alcoholic Beverages,” Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 317–325, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rossana Bossi, Camilla Taxvig, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Anne Marie Vinggaard, and Julie Boberg, “Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure,” International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2271–2281, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Masakazu Yamashita, and Masato Hata, “Possibility of the Benzoic Acids Formation by Oxidation of Benzyl Chlorides in the Sand,” Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 04, no. 01, pp. 126–128, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sudha P. Pandalai, Paul A. Schulte, and Diane B. Miller, “Conceptual heuristic models of the interrelationships between obesity and the occupational environment,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 221–232, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Caili Zhang, Anzhong Wang, Xiaona Sun, Xiaocai Li, Xinghua Zhao, Shuang Li, and Aituan Ma, “Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Testis Spermatogenic Injury Induced by Bisphenol A in Mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, pp. 1–9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cheryl Lyn Walker, and Rebecca Lee Yean Wong, “Molecular Pathways: Environmental Estrogens Activate Nongenomic Signaling to Developmentally Reprogram the Epigenome,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 3732–3737, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. Collotta, V. Bollati, and P. A. Bertazzi, “Epigenetics and pesticides,” Toxicology, vol. 307, pp. 35–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. M. Jesionowski, S. M. Gabriel, J. D. Rich, and J. R. Schroeder, “Failure of pesticides to alter migration of cancerous and non-cancerous breast cell lines in vitro,” Toxicol. Res., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patricia Pinto, Maria Estêvão, and Deborah Power, “Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues,” Marine Drugs, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 4474–4494, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katia Jedeon, Clémence Marciano, Sophia Loiodice, Sofiane Boudalia, Marie-Chantal Canivenc Lavier, Ariane Berdal, and Sylvie Babajko, “Enamel hypomineralization due to endocrine disruptors,” Connective Tissue Research, vol. 55, no. S1, pp. 43–47, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • K. Croes, E. Den Hond, L. Bruckers, E. Govarts, G. Schoeters, A. Covaci, I. Loots, B. Morrens, V. Nelen, I. Sioen, N. Van Larebeke, and W. Baeyens, “Endocrine actions of pesticides measured in the Flemish environment and health studies (FLEHS I and II),” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tye E. Arbuckle, Karelyn Davis, Leonora Marro, Mandy Fisher, Melissa Legrand, Alain LeBlanc, Eric Gaudreau, Warren G. Foster, Voleak Choeurng, and William D. Fraser, “Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada — Results from the MIREC study,” Environment International, vol. 68, pp. 55–65, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wei-Wen Hsu, Janet Rose Osuch, David Todem, Bonita Taffe, Michael O’Keefe, Selamawit Adera, and Wilfried Karmaus, “DDE and PCB serum concentration in maternal blood and their adult female offspring,” Environmental Research, vol. 132, pp. 384–390, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ha Thi Ngo, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Line Småstuen Haug, and Inger-Lise Steffensen, “In utero exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not increase body weight or intestinal tumorigenesis in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mice,” Environmental Research, vol. 132, pp. 251–263, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Charles J. Everett, and Olivia M. Thompson, “Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: Causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?,” Environmental Research, vol. 132, pp. 126–131, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrew G. Kirkley, and Robert M. Sargis, “Environmental Endocrine Disruption of Energy Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 14, no. 6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fabio Stossi, Michael J. Bolt, Felicity J. Ashcroft, Jane E. Lamerdin, Jonathan S. Melnick, Reid T. Powell, Radhika D. Dandekar, Maureen G. Mancini, Cheryl L. Walker, John K. Westwick, and Michael A. Mancini, “Defining Estrogenic Mechanisms of Bisphenol A Analogs through High Throughput Microscopy-Based Contextual Assays,” Chemistry & Biology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 743–753, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard Hampl, Jana Kubátová, and Luboslav Stárka, “Steroids and endocrine disruptors–history, recent state of art and open questions,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Y Song, R Hauser, F B Hu, A A Franke, S Liu, and Q Sun, “Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites and weight change: a prospective investigation in US women,” International Journal of Obesity, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pheruza Tarapore, Jun Ying, Bin Ouyang, Barbara Burke, Bruce Bracken, and Shuk-Mei Ho, “Exposure to Bisphenol A Correlates with Early-Onset Prostate Cancer and Promotes Centrosome Amplification and Anchorage-Independent Growth In Vitro,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shane M. Regnier, “Adipocytes under assault: Environmental disruption of adipose physiology,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1842, no. 3, pp. 520–533, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michel Goldberg, Sasha Dimitrova-Nakov, and Gottfried Schmalz, “BPA from dental resin material: where are we going with restorative and preventive dental biomaterials?,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 347–349, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lydia M. M. Vermeer, Eugene Gregory, Michelle K. Winter, Kenneth E. McCarson, and Nancy E. J. Berman, “Exposure to Bisphenol A Exacerbates Migraine-Like Behaviors in a Multibehavior Model of Rat Migraine,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 416–427, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Y Huang, Xl Wang, Jw Zhang, and Ks Wu, “ Impact of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Reproductive Function in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) ,” Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vanessa Delfosse, Albane le Maire, Patrick Balaguer, and William Bourguet, “A structural perspective on nuclear receptors as targets of environmental compounds,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 88–101, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vanessa Delfosse, Albane le Maire, Patrick Balaguer, and William Bourguet, “A structural perspective on nuclear receptors as targets of environmental compounds,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julia R. Barrett, “EDCs and Estrogen Receptor Activity: A Pathway to Safer Chemical Design?,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. A339–A339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vanessa Delfosse, Marina Grimaldi, Vincent Cavailles, Patrick Balaguer, and William Bourguet, “Structural and Functional Profiling of Environmental Ligands for Estrogen Receptors,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 1306–1313, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yu Ri An, Yoon Ki Joo, Seung Jun Kim, So-Yeon Yu, Jeong Jin Ahn, Ji Young Hong, and Seung Yong Hwang, “Functional analysis of endocrine disruptor pesticides affected transcriptome and microRNA regulation in human hepatoma cell line,” Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 393–400, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marissa Sobolewski, Katherine Conrad, Joshua L. Allen, Hiromi Weston, Kyle Martin, B. Paige Lawrence, and Deborah A. Cory-Slechta, “Sex-specific enhanced behavioral toxicity induced by maternal exposure to a mixture of low dose endocrine-disrupting chemicals,” Neurotoxicology, vol. 45, pp. 121–130, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nik Van Larebeke, Isabelle Sioen, Elly Den Hond, Vera Nelen, Els Van de Mieroop, Tim Nawrot, Liesbeth Bruckers, Greet Schoeters, and Willy Baeyens, “Internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and cadmium and self-reported health status: A prospective study,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lucas Dewalque, Catherine Pirard, Nathalie Dubois, and Corinne Charlier, “Simultaneous determination of some phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 in urine by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography B, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hongliang Wu, Guoliang Li, Shucheng Liu, Na Hu, Dandan Geng, Guang Chen, Zhiwei Sun, Xianen Zhao, Lian Xia, and Jinmao You, “Monitoring the contents of six steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in chicken, fish and aquaculture pond water samples using pre-column derivatization and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental design methodology,” Food Chemistry, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ming Ye, Jeremy Beach, Jonathan W. Martin, and Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, “Associations between dietary factors and urinary concentrations of organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites in a Canadian general population,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eva Rahman Kabir, Monica Sharfin Rahman, and Imon Rahman, “A Review on Endocrine Disruptors and their Possible Impacts on Human Health,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Guilhem Lignon, Muriel de la Dure-Molla, Arnaud Dessombz, Ariane Berdal, and Sylvie Babajko, “L’émail,” médecine/sciences, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 515–521, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R. Brooks Robey, J. Weisz, N. Kuemmerle, A. C. Salzberg, A. Berg, D. G. Brown, L. Kubik, R. Palorini, F. Al-Mulla, R. Al-Temaimi, A. Colacci, C. Mondello, J. Raju, J. Woodrick, A. I. Scovassi, N. Singh, M. Vaccari, R. Roy, S. Forte, L. Memeo, H. K. Salem, A. Amedei, R. A. Hamid, G. P. Williams, L. Lowe, J. Meyer, F. L. Martin, W. H. Bisson, F. Chiaradonna, and E. P. Ryan, “Metabolic reprogramming and dysregulated metabolism: cause, consequence and/or enabler of environmental carcinogenesis?,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 36, no. Suppl1, pp. S203–S231, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicolas Kalfa, Françoise Paris, Pascal Philibert, Mattea Orsini, Sylvie Broussous, Nadège Fauconnet-Servant, Françoise Audran, Laura Gaspari, Hélène Lehors, Myriam Haddad, Jean-Michel Guys, Rachel Reynaud, Pierre Alessandrini, Thierry Merrot, Kathy Wagner, Jean-Yves Kurzenne, Florence Bastiani, Jean Bréaud, Jean-Stéphane Valla, Gérard Morisson Lacombe, Eric Dobremez, Amel Zahhaf, Jean-Pierre Daures, and Charles Sultan, “Is Hypospadias Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors? A French Collaborative Controlled Study of a Cohort of 300 Consecutive Children Without Genetic Defect,” European Urology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Samah M.M. Fathy, and Ashraf M.M. Essa, “Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B. Pieterse, I. J. C. Rijk, E. Simon, B. M. A. van Vugt-Lussenburg, B. F. H. Fokke, M. van der Wijk, H. Besselink, R. Weber, and B. van der Burg, “Effect-based assessment of persistent organic pollutant and pesticide dumpsite using mammalian CALUX reporter cell lines,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jordan T. Perkins, Michael C. Petriello, Bradley J. Newsome, and Bernhard Hennig, “Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vimal Vijayan, Martin Giersberg, Alexandre Chamas, Mamta Mehrotra, Venkata Chelikani, Gotthard Kunze, and Keith Baronian, “Use of recombinant oestrogen binding protein for the electrochemical detection of oestrogen,” Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 66, pp. 379–384, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nadia Casatta, Giuseppe Mascolo, Claudio Roscioli, and Luigi Vigano, “Tracing endocrine disrupting chemicals in a coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy): Sediment contamination and bioaccumulation in Manila clams,” Science Of The Total Environment, vol. 511, pp. 214–222, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eva Tvrda, Ashok Agarwal, and Nawaf Alkuhaimi, “Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship,” International Journal Of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 7230–7260, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maarke J. E. Roelofs, Martin van den Berg, Toine F. H. Bovee, Aldert H. Piersma, and Majorie B. M. van Duursen, “Structural bisphenol analogues differentially target steroidogenesis in murine MA-10 Leydig cells as well as the glucocorticoid receptor,” Toxicology, vol. 329, pp. 10–20, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • David Tonoli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Julien Boccard, Denis Hochstrasser, Fabienne Jeanneret, Alex Odermatt, and Serge Rudaz, “Steroidomic Footprinting Based On Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled With Qualitative And Quantitative High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry For The Evaluation Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In H295r Cells,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, pp. 150331123807000, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Imran Ali, Pauliina Damdimopoulou, Ulla Stenius, and Krister Halldin, “Cadmium at nanomolar concentrations activates Raf–MEK–ERK1/2 MAPKs signaling via EGFR in human cancer cell lines,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Latif-ur-Rahman, Afzal Shah, Sher Bahadar Khan, Abdullah M. Asiri, Hidayat Hussain, Changseok Han, Rumana Qureshi, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad Abid Zia, Muhammad Ishaq, and Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz, “Synthesis, characterization, and application of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles for the sensing of an environmental toxin, pyrene,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Miroslav Mišík, Michael Kundi, Clemens Pichler, Metka Filipic, Bernhard Rainer, Katarina Mišíková, Armen Nersesyan, and Siegfried Knasmueller, “Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria P. Vélez, Tye E. Arbuckle, and William D. Fraser, “Female exposure to phenols and phthalates and time to pregnancy: the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study,” Fertility and Sterility, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • T. Vandermarken, S. De Galan, K. Croes, K. Van Langenhove, J. Vercammen, H. Sanctorum, M.S. Denison, L. Goeyens, M. Elskens, and W. Baeyens, “Characterisation and implementation of the ERE-CALUX bioassay on indoor dust samples of kindergartens to assess estrogenic potencies,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sara Fagerstedt, Maria Kippler, Annika Scheynius, Cindy Gutzeit, Axel Mie, Johan Alm, and Marie Vahter, “Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood,” Environmental Research, vol. 136, pp. 88–96, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar