About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 784390, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/784390
Research Article

Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

1Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110 Belém, PA, Brazil
2Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66055-240 Belém, PA, Brazil
3Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Núcleo de Neurociências e Comportamento, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 16 July 2011; Accepted 19 September 2011

Academic Editor: Gerry Schwalfenberg

Copyright © 2012 Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Hänninen, J. Eskelinen, K. Husman, and M. Nurminen, “Behavioral effects of long term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 240–255, 1976. View at Scopus
  2. J. Olsen and S. Sabroe, “A case-reference study of neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents in the Danish wood and furniture industry,” Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 44–49, 1980. View at Scopus
  3. D. Mergler, R. Bowler, and J. Cone, “Colour vision loss among disabled workers with neuropsychological impairment,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 669–672, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Pfister, I. Böckelmann, S. Darius, and C. Wurthmann, “Diagnosis of early toxic effects of lead or mixed organic solvents - Inclusion of psychopathological methods,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 435–440, 1999. View at Scopus
  5. A. Ahmadi, P. Jönsson, U. Flodin, and P. Söderkvist, “Interaction between smoking and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 289–296, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Boeckelmann and E. A. Pfister, “Influence of occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on contrast sensitivity in printers,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Semple, F. Dick, A. Osborne et al., “Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 582–587, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Amaducci, C. Arfaioli, D. Inzitari, and M. Marchi, “Multiple sclerosis among shoe and leather workers: an epidemiological survey in Florence,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 94–103, 1982. View at Scopus
  9. A. M. Chancellor, J. M. Slattery, H. Fraser, and C. P. Warlow, “Risk factors for motor neuron disease: a case-control study based on patients from the Scottish motor neuron disease register,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 1200–1206, 1993. View at Scopus
  10. A. Smargiassi, A. Mutti, A. De Rosa, G. De Palma, A. Negrotti, and S. Calzetti, “A case-control study of occupational and environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 19, no. 4-5, pp. 709–712, 1998. View at Scopus
  11. J. Baelum, I. Andersen, and L. Molhave, “Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 1982. View at Scopus
  12. R. Chen, S. Semple, F. Dick, and A. Seaton, “Nasal, eye, and skin irritation in dockyard painters,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 542–543, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. D. Dick, “Solvent neurotoxicity,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 63, pp. 221–226, 2007.
  14. I. Böckelmann, S. Darius, N. McGauran, B. P. Robra, B. Peter, and E. A. Pfister, “The psychological effects of exposure to mixed organic solvents on car painters,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 455–461, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. C. Till, C. A. Westall, J. F. Rovet, and G. Koren, “Effects of maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents on offspring visual functioning: a prospective controlled study,” Teratology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 134–141, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. D. Mergler, S. Belanger, S. De Grosbois, and N. Vachon, “Chromal focus of acquired chromatic discrimination loss and solvent exposure among printshop workers,” Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 2-3, pp. 341–348, 1988. View at Scopus
  17. F. Gobba, C. Galassi, M. Imbriani, S. Ghittori, S. Candela, and A. Cavalleri, “Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers,” Journal of Occupational Medicine, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 761–765, 1991.
  18. M. Zavalic, Z. Mandic, R. Turk et al., “Assessment of colour vision impairment in male workers exposed to toluene generally above occupational exposure limits,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 175–180, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Dick, S. Semple, R. Chen, and A. Seaton, “Neurological deficits in solvent-exposed painters: a syndrome including impaired colour vision, cognitive defects, tremors and loss of vibration sensation,” QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 655–661, 2000. View at Scopus
  20. C. Raitta, H. Teir, M. Tolonen, M. Nurminen, E. Helpiö, and S. Malmström, “Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide,” Journal of Occupational Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 189–192, 1981. View at Scopus
  21. D. Campagna, D. Mergler, G. Huel et al., “Visual dysfunction among styrene-exposed workers,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 382–390, 1995. View at Scopus
  22. A. Muttray, U. Wolff, D. Jung, and J. Konietzko, “Blue-yellow deficiency in workers exposed to low concentrations of organic solvents,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 407–412, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Campagna, B. Stengel, D. Mergler et al., “Color vision and occupational toluene exposure,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 473–480, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Issever, G. Malat, H. H. Sabuncu, and N. Yuksel, “Impairment of colour vision in patients with n-hexane exposure-dependent toxic polyneuropathy,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 183–186, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. S. Schreiber, H. Kenneth Hudnell, A. M. Geller et al., “Apartment residents' and day care workers' exposures to tetrachloroethylene and deficits in visual contrast sensitivity,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 655–664, 2002. View at Scopus
  26. F. Gobba, C. Galassi, M. Imbriani, S. Ghittori, S. Candela, and A. Cavalleri, “Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers,” Journal of Occupational Medicine, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 761–765, 1991. View at Scopus
  27. C. Fallas, J. Fallas, P. Maslard, and S. Dally, “Subclinical impairment of colour vision among workers exposed to styrene,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 679–682, 1992. View at Scopus
  28. T. Eguchi, R. Kishi, I. Harabuchi et al., “Impaired colour discrimination among workers exposed to styrene: relevance of a urinary metabolite,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 534–538, 1995. View at Scopus
  29. M. Schäper, P. Demes, E. Kiesswetter, M. Zupanic, and A. Seeber, “Colour vision and occupational toluene exposure: results of repeated examinations,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. E. H. Lee, K. D. Eum, S. I. Cho, H. K. Cheong, and D. M. Paek, “Acquired dyschromatopsia among petrochemical industry workers exposed to benzene,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 356–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. J. Päällysaho, R. Näsänen, M. Mäntyjärvi, A. Kaukiainen, and M. Sainio, “Colour vision defects in occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 375–383, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. C. Raitta, A. M. Seppalainen, and M. S. Huuskonen, “N-hexane maculopathy in industrial workers,” Graefe’s Archives of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 99–110, 1978.
  33. Y. Yamamura, “N-hexane polyneuropathy,” Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 45–57, 1969. View at Scopus
  34. W. M. Grant and J. S. Schuman, Toxicology of the Eye, edited by C. Charles, Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1993.
  35. P. Järvinen and L. Hyvärinen, “Contrast sensitivity measurement in evaluations of visual symptoms caused by exposure to triethylamine,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 483–486, 1997. View at Scopus
  36. B. Frenette, D. Mergler, and R. Bowler, “Contrast-sensitivity loss in a group of former microelectronics workers with normal visual acuity,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 556–560, 1991. View at Scopus
  37. D. K. Broadwell, D. J. Darcey, H. K. Hudnell, D. A. Otto, and W. K. Boyes, “Work-site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent-exposed microelectronics workers,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 677–698, 1995. View at Scopus
  38. Y. Gong, R. Kishi, S. Kasai et al., “Visual dysfunction in workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 24, no. 4-5, pp. 703–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. D. Mergler, G. Huel, R. Bowler, B. Frenette, and J. Cone, “Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 326–334, 1991. View at Scopus
  40. A. Iregren, M. Andersson, and P. Nylén, “Color vision and occupational chemical exposures: I. An overview of tests and effects,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 719–733, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. S. Mikkelsen, “A cohort study of disability pension and death among painters with special regard to disabling presenile dementia as an occupational disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 34–43, 1980. View at Scopus
  42. D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test for the Examination of Color Discrimination (Manual), Munsell Color, MacBeth, A Division of Kollmorgen Corporation, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1957.
  43. B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vision Research, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1279–1299, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. J. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1969.
  45. J. A. Rosen, “Pseudoisochromatic visual testing in the diagnosis of disseminated sclerosis,” Transactions of the American Neurological Association, vol. 90, pp. 283–284, 1965. View at Scopus
  46. G. N. Rosenberg, “Nervous system effects of toluene and other organic solvents,” Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 571–572, 1989.
  47. D. Mergler and L. Blain, “Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 195–203, 1987. View at Scopus
  48. S. Semple, F. Dick, A. Osborne et al., “Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 582–587, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Dick, S. Semple, A. Osborne et al., “Organic solvent exposure, genes, and risk of neuropsychological impairment,” QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 379–387, 2002. View at Scopus
  50. A. Ihrig, M. Nasterlack, M. C. Dietz, J. Hoffmann, and G. Triebig, “Pilot study on prevalence of color vision dysfunction in long-term solvent-exposed painters,” Industrial Health, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 2003. View at Scopus
  51. F. Dick, S. Semple, A. Soutar, A. Osborne, J. W. Cherrie, and A. Seaton, “Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 76–78, 2004. View at Scopus
  52. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkers, Congenital and Acquired Colour Defects, Grune and Stratton, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  53. K. J. Bowman, “A method for quantitative scoring of the Farnsworth Panel D-15,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 907–916, 1982. View at Scopus
  54. D. Mergler, L. Blain , and J. P. Lagace, “Solvent related colour vision impairment: an indicator of neural changes?” International and Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 59, p. 313, 1987.
  55. M. S. Hayreh, S. S. Hayreh, G. L. Baumbach, P. Cancilla, G. Martin-Amat, and T. R. Tephly, “Ocular toxicity of methanol: an experimental study,” in Neurotoxicity of the Visual System, W. Merigan and B. Weiss, Eds., pp. 35|–53, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 1980.
  56. J. T. Eells, “Methanol-induced visual toxicity in the rat,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 1991. View at Scopus
  57. A. M. Potts, J. Praglin, I. Farkas, L. Orbison, and D. Chickering, “Studies on the visual toxicity of methanol. VIII. Additional observations on methanol poisoning in the primate test object,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 76–83, 1955. View at Scopus
  58. H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes, ihre klinische Bedeutung und ihre Diagnose, Karger, Berlin, Germany, 1912.
  59. A. Pinckers and M. Marre, “Basic phenomena in acquired colour vision deficiency,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 251–271, 1983. View at Scopus
  60. H. H. Schaumburg and P. S. Spencer, “Environmental hydrocarbons produce degeneration in cat hypo-thalamus and optic tract,” Science, vol. 199, pp. 199–200, 1978.
  61. L. Blain and D. Mergler, “Dyschromatopsia in workers exposed to organic solvents,” Journal Francais d'Ophtalmologie, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 1986. View at Scopus
  62. W. H. Merigan, “Chromatic and achromatic vision of macaques: role of the P pathway,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 776–783, 1989. View at Scopus
  63. P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Role of the color-opponent and broad-band channels in vision,” Visual Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 321–346, 1990. View at Scopus
  64. W. H. Merigan, L. M. Katz, and J. H. R. Maunsell, “The effects of parvocellular lateral geniculate lesions on the acuity and contrast sensitivity of macaque monkeys,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 994–1001, 1991. View at Scopus
  65. F. Gobba, “Color vision: a sensitive indicator of exposure to neurotoxins,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 857–862, 2000.
  66. P. Söderkvist, A. Ahmadi, A. Åkerbäck, O. Axelson, and U. Flodin, “Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype as a risk modifier for solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 360–363, 1996.
  67. E. M. C. B. Lacerda, M. G. Lima, G. S. Souza, et al., “Chromatic and achromatic psychophysical evaluations from chronically exposed workers to mixture of organic solvents,” in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of ARVO, p. 368, Winter Park, Fla, USA, 2010.