Table 1: Concentrations of DINP and DIDP metabolites measured in biological monitoring studies around the world. Legends: M: median; IQR: interquartile range; ND: nondetects; R: range; P95: 95th percentile; MINP: monoisononyl phthalate; MHINP: monohydroxy isononyl phthalate; MOINP: monooxoisononyl phthalate; MCIOP: monocarboxy isooctyl phthalate; MIDP: monoisodecyl phthalate; MHIDP: monohydroxy isodecyl phthalate; MOIDP: monooxoisodecyl phthalate; MCINP: monocarboxy isononyl phthalate.

Sampling year Country Population Type of sampleNDINP (ng/mL)DIDP (ng/mL) Reference
MINPMHiNPMOiNPMCiOPMIDPMHiDPMOiDPMCiNP

2004/2008SpainPregnant women (3rd trimester)Spot urine120 ** ** ** M = 4.0
IQR = 3.5
ND < 3%
** ** ** M = 2 . 8
IQR = 2.2
ND < 3%
[38]
Children (4 year old boys)Spot urine30 ** ** ** M = 7 . 5
IQR = 6.4
ND = 0%
** M = 4.0
IQR = 4.1
N D = 0 %

2005/2006JapanPregnant women (1st trimester)Spot urine50<0.035 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** [35]

2001/2002 and 2006/2007TaiwanPregnant women (3rd trimester)Spot urine100 ** M 0.25
R = 0.25−
364
M ≤ 0.25
R = 0.25−
288
M≤0.25
R = 0.25−
281
** ** ** ** [33]
Children (2-3 years)Spot urine30 ** M = 6.15
R = 0.25−
398.84
M = 3.84
R = 0.25−
287.46
M = 9.36
R = 0.25−
932.74
** ** ** **
Children (5-6 years)Spot urine59 ** M = 7.94
R = 0.6−
1188
M = 4.3
R = 0.25−
 352.62
M = 9.42
R = 1.22 −
915.6
** ** ** **

2007GermanyChildren (5-6 years)Spot urine111 ** M = 7
R≤0.25−
83.3
ND = 4%
M = 4.2
R≤0.25−
51.6
ND = 22%
M = 13.1
R≤0.25
  −168
ND = 1%
** M = 0.4
R≤0.2−9.8
ND=40%
M≤0.25
R≤0.25− 3.4
ND = 70%
M = 1.3
R ≤0.25
  −16.0
ND = 6%
[12]

2003/2006GermanyChildren (3–14 years)Morning urine599 ** M = 11.0
R≥0.25−
198
ND = 0%
M = 5.4
R≥0.25−
    86.7
ND = 2%
M = 12.7
R ≥0.25−
195
ND = 0%
** ** ** ** [13]

2006/2008DenmarkChildren (6–21 years)24 hour urine129 Sum of all metabolites:
M = 31
R = 3− 281
ND = 0%
** ** ** ** [34]

1988/2003GermanyStudents (21–29 years; 326 females and 308 males)24 hour urine634 ** M = 11.9
R 0.25−
85.4
ND = 1%
M = 1.0
R 0.25−
63.8
ND = 8%
** ** ** ** ** [11]

2005USAAdultsSpot urine129<0.36M = 13.2
R = 1.4
−202.7
ND = 0%
M = 1.2
R 0.25−
201.7
ND = 13%
M = 8.4
R 0.25−
310.8
ND = 3%
** ** ** ** [27]

2007GermanyAdultsMorning urine45 ** M = 4.7
P95 = 16.8
M = 1.7
P95 = 6.7
M = 5.3
P95 = 15.5
** M = 1.0
P95 = 4.0
M = 0.2
P95 = 1.1
M = 0.7
P95 = 2.6
[39]

1988/1994USAAdults (20–60 years)Spot urine289M 0.8
R 0.8
−79.7
ND ≥75%
** ** ** ** ** ** ** [10]

2005GermanyMales (14–60)Morning urine (men)23 ** M = 5.5
R = 2.2−49.4
ND = 1%
M = 3 . 0
R=0.5−8.2
ND = 2%
[40]
Females (14–60)Morning urine (women)27 ** M = 5.7
R =  0.7−12.1
ND = 1%
M = 3.1
R = 3.8−23.6
ND = 2%
** ** ** ** **

UnknownGermanygeneral population (6–80 years)Spot urine102 ** M = 2.0M = 1.3M = 4.0 ** ** ** ** Koch et al. unpublished data

2005/2006USAgeneral population ( 6 years)Spot urine2548<0.8 ** ** M = 5 . 1 0
R = 0.7−
4961
ND = 5%
** ** ** M = 2.7
R ≥0.6−
672.6
ND = 10%
[9]

2007–2009Canadageneral population (6–59 years)Spot urine<0.4 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** Saravanabhavan, unpublished data