Table 4: Effects of banning smoking in public places on smoking initiation, cessation, and prevalence.

Author, yearCountry (data source)Study designDates of data collectionPopulationIntervention, n Smoking measureEffect on smoking initiation, cessation, or prevalence

                                                        Smoking initiation

Hawkins et al., 2011 [41]England, Scotland (MCS)Longitudinal2000–2007Adults
mean age = 29
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1072
(f) and 632 (m)
(C) no smoking ban, 4158 (f) and 2624 (m)
Daily smokingInitiation rates at followup, females:
(I) 6.2%
(C) 7.3%
aOR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58; 0.97)
Initiation rates at followup, males:
(I) 3.6%
(C) 4.5%
aOR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.48; 1.37)

Klein, 2008 [42]US (MACC)Longitudinal2000–2006Youths, age 12–16(I) complete ban in restaurants and/or bars
(C) smoking areas designated or not restricted
Ever smoked at least a whole cigaretteaOR = 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00;, 1.16)

                                                        Smoking cessation

Hawkins et al., 2011 [41]England, Scotland (MCS)Longitudinal2000–2007Adults
Mean age = 29
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1072
(f) and 632 (m)
(C) no smoking ban, 4158 (f) and 2624 (m)
Not smoking any cigarettesQuit rates within 1 year after ban, females:
(I) 16.0%
(C) 24.0%
aOR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47; 0.89)
Quit rates within 1 year after ban, males:
(I) 20.5%
(C) 28.8%
aOR = 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46; 0.93)

Biener et al., 2010 [43]US (UMass Tobacco Study)Longitudinal2001–2006Adults, age 18+,
Age 18–30: 25%
Age 31–59: 65%
Age 60+: 10%–46% male
(I) change in town’s workplace or restaurant smoking ban, 1162
(C) no change, 1473
3-month abstinenceQuit rates within 2 years after ban:
(I) 13.1%
(C) 13.8%
aOR = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.69; 1.31)

Hyland et al., 2009 [44]UK (ITC)Longitudinal2006-2007Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, in Scotland, 507
(C) other parts of UK, 828
Smoked at least once/month and smoked at least 100 cigarettes lifetimeQuit rates 1 year after intervention:
(I) 19% (95% CI: 9.8; 29%)
(C) 21% (95% CI: 14; 28%)
aOR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.47; 1.7)

De Chaisemartin et al., 2011 [50]France (Consultation Dependance Tabagique)Longitudinal2004–2008Adults(I) complete ban in workplaces, 5963Smoked 0 cigarettes/day and all expired CO measures <9 ppmMean difference in quit rates between employed and unemployed: 7.0%

Bauza-Amengual et al., 2010 [45]Spain (original data collection)Longitudinal2006-2007Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars††Quit smoking (self-reported)Quit rates 1 month after ban: 9.5%
Quit rates 6 months after ban: 13.8%

Murphy et al., 2010 [46]US (original data collection)Longitudinal2002–2005Adults, age 18+,
20% male,
mean age = 37 years
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 237Quit smokingQuit rate 2 years after ban: 14%

Orbell et al., 2009 [47]England (original data collection)Longitudinal2007Adults, age 18+,
57% male,
Mean age = 36 years
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 84Quit smokingQuit rates 3 months after ban: 15.5%

Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2009 [48]Spain (original data collection)Longitudinal2005-2006Adults(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars††, 118Daily or occasional smokers with salivary cotinine concentration ≤35 ng/mL per cigarette smokedQuit rate 1 year after ban: 5.1%

Fowkes et al., 2008 [49]Scotland (AAA Trial)Longitudinal1998–2007Adults, age 50–75
33% male
mean age = 60.9
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1141Self-reported; must have quit for at least 3 monthsChange in smoking cessation pattern during 2006, with increase in quit rates (5.1%) in 3-month period prior to ban

                                                        Smoking prevalence

Mackay et al., 2011 [57]Scotland (Scottish Household Survey)Time series1999–2010NR(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsCurrent smokerCoeff. for 3–6 mos prior to law: −1.70 (95% CI: −2.38, −1.02), 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1
Coeff. for 9 mos after law: −0.08 (95% CI: −0.39, 0.22); 𝑃 = 0 . 5 9

Wakefield et al., 2008 [27]Australia (Roy Morgan Single Source)Time series1995–2006Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, restaurants onlySmoke factory-made cigarettesCoeff. (se): −0.0104 (0.0103); 𝑃 = 0 . 3 1 7

Anger et al., 2011 [63]Germany (SOEP)Longitudinal2002–2008Adults,
mean age = 47
47% male
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsCurrent smokerCoeff.: −0.004 (se: 0.008); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5

Hawkins et al., 2011 [41]England; Scotland (MCS)Longitudinal2000–2007Adults,
mean age = 29
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1522
(f) and 904 (m);
(C) no smoking ban, 5954 (f) and 3757 (m)
Daily smokingSmoking prevalence at baseline, females:
(I) 31.0%
(C) 29.8%
Smoking prevalence at followup, females:
(I) 30.3%
(C) 27.7%
aOR = 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.40)
Smoking prevalence at baseline, males:
(I) 31.5%
(C) 29.5%
Smoking prevalence at followup, males:
(I) 27.5%
(C) 24.2%
aOR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.61)

Mullally et al., 2009 [58]Ireland (All-Ireland Bar Study)Longitudinal2004-2005Adults, age 18+
71% male
Mean age = 33
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsCombined self report and cotinine measuresSmoking prevalence prior to law: 56.1%
Smoking prevalence 1 year after law: 51.4%; 𝑃 = 0 . 1 2 5

Klein et al., 2009 [54]US (MACC)Longitudinal2000–2006Youths, age 12–16
49% male
(I) complete ban in restaurants and/or bars, 1028;
(C) smoking areas designated or not restricted, 3205
Smoked in the past monthaOR = 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93; 1.21)

Bitler et al., 2011 [65]US (TUS-CPS)Before/after w/comparison1992–2007Adults, age 18+Strength of state smoking bans in bars§Daily or someday smokerOR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.94)

White et al., 2011 [16]Australia (cross-sectional surveys of secondary schools)Before/after w/comparison1990–2005Youths, age 12–17Scoring system based on the extent to which policies have been adoptedSmoked in the past monthaOR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92; 0.94)

Hahn et al., 2010 [51]USBefore/after w/comparison2004–2008Youths, age 18–24
31–39% male
(I) complete smoking ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 897*, 469**
(C) delayed smoking ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 703*, 701**
Smoked in past 30-daysSmoking prevalence (I)
before ban: 28.0%;
3.5 years after ban: 19.4%;
𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 5
Smoking prevalence (C)
before ban: 21.5%;
8 months after ban: 16.9%;
𝑃 = 0 . 0 3

Bitler et al., 2010 [66]US (TUS-CPS)Before/after w/comparison1992–2007Adults, age 18+Venue-specific Impact Teen ratingsSmoked at least some daysCoeff. for private workplace SCIAL among private sector workers: 0.001 (se: 0.003); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
Coeff. for government workplace SCIAL among government workers: 0.011 (se: 0.009); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
Coeff. for public school SCIAL among school workers: −0.001 (se: 0.003); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
Coeff. for private school SCIAL among school workers: −0.004 (se: 0.004); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
Coeff. for restaurant SCIAL among all workers at eating/drinking places: 0.013 (se: 0.014); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
Coeff. for bar SCIAL among bartenders: −0.058 (se: 0.021); 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1

Hahn et al., 2008 [52]US (BRFSS)Before/after w/comparison2001–2005Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 579* and 281**
(C) no smoke-free laws, 6560* and 2993**
Daily or some day smoker and smoked at least 100 cigarettes lifetimeSmoking prevalence 40 months prior to law:
(I) 25.7% (95% CI: 21.2, 30.1%)
(C) 28.4% (95% CI: 26.8, 30.0)
Smoking prevalence 20 months after law:
(I) 17.5% (11.8, 23.1)
(C) 27.6% (25.2, 30.0)
aOR = 0.84 (0.72, 0.97)

Lemstra et al., 2008 [53]Canada (Canadian Community Health Survey)Before/after w/comparison2003–2005Adults(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1301* and 1244**
(C1) Saskatchewan
(C2) Canada
NRBaseline smoking prevalence:
(I) 24.1% (95% CI: 20.4, 27.7)
(C1) 23.8 (22.6, 25.3)
(C2) 22.9 (22.5, 23.3)
Smoking prevalence 1 year after law:
(I) 18.2% (15.7, 20.9)
(C1) 23.8
(C2) 21.3 (20.8, 21.8)

Lee et al., 2011 [61]England (Health Survey for England)Before/after w/o comparison2003–2008Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsCurrent smokeraOR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.11)

Guerrero et al., 2011 [56]Spain (National Health Survey for Spain)Before/after w/o comparison1993–2009Adults, age 16–65(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars††Smoked at least 100 cigarettes lifetimeSmoking prevalence in 1993: 36.18%
Smoking prevalence in 2003: 30.97%
Smoking prevalence in 2006 (<1 yr after ban): 29.50%
Smoking prevalence in 2009 (3 yrs after ban): 31.47%

Verdonk-Kleinjan et al., 2011 [64]The Netherlands (Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits)Before/after w/o comparison2003-2004Adults, age 16–65(I) complete ban in workplaces, 601Daily smokingSmoking prevalence prior to ban: 27.5%
Smoking prevalence 1 month after ban: 25.5%
OR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.70; 1.08)

Mullally et al.,
2009 [58]
Ireland (survey commissioned by the Office of Tobacco Control)Before/after w/o comparison2004-2005Adults, age 18+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsSmoked more than 1 cigarette per weekSmoking prevalence prior to law: 28.3%
Smoking prevalence 1 year after law: 24.8%; 𝑃 = 0 . 0 5 5

Elton and Campbell, 2008 [62]England (original data collection)Before/after w/o comparison2007Adults, age 18+,
age 18–24: 7%
age 25–34: 12%
age 35–44: 16%
age 45–54: 18%
age 55–64: 20%
age 65–74: 14%
age 75+: 13%
45% male
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 2054* and 1938**Currently smokeBaseline smoking prevalence: 22.4%
Smoking prevalence 3 months after law: 22.6%

Haw and Gruer, 2007 [60]Scotland (original data collection)Before/after w/o comparison2005–2007Adults, age 16–74(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars, 1815* and 1834**Self-reportedBaseline smoking prevalence: 35.6%
Smoking prevalence after law: 35.1%

Galan et al., 2007 [59]SpainBefore/after w/o comparison2005-2006Adults, age 18–64,
Age 18–29: 26%
Age 30–44: 40%
Age 45–64: 33%
48% male
(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or bars††, 1750* and 1252**Self-reportedBaseline smoking prevalence: 31.7%
Smoking prevalence after law: 32.7%

Gallus et al., 2006 [55]Italy (DOXA)Before/after w/o comparison2004-2005Adults, age 15+(I) complete ban, including restaurants and/or barsNRBaseline smoking prevalence:
(I) 26.2%
Smoking prevalence 3 months after laws:
(I) 25.6%

Sloan and Trogdon, 2004 [33]US (BRFSS)Before/after w/o comparison1990–2002Adults, age 18+;
35–46% male
Categorical variables based on number and type of public places where smoking is banned: none, nominal, basic, moderate, and extensive, 1,762,686Daily or some day smokerNominal‡‡: 0.011, 0.001, −0.001, −0.004, and 0.006
Basic‡‡: 0.032, −0.047, 0.009, 0.013, and 0.005
Moderate‡‡: 0.030, −0.015, 0.017, 0.015, and 0.008
Extensive‡‡: 0.013, −0.011, 0.004, −0.005, and −0.007

*Prelaw sample size.
**Postlaw sample size.
Exceptions were made to the smoking ban for restaurants with separate and regulated smoking areas.
††There was a partial ban on smoking in restaurants and bars. Establishments of less than 100 square meters were able to decide whether or not to permit smoking. Establishments of more than 100 square meters could provide a separate smoking area with a separate ventilation system that was no larger than 30% of the total area of the premises.
Based on data from the State Legislated Actions on Tobacco Issues, 2002.
‡‡Results reported by age group: 18 to 20 years, 21 to 24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and 65 years and older.
§Based on data from Robert Wood Johnson’s ImpacTeen database.
AAA: Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis; aOR: adjusted odds ratio; BRFSS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; C: control; CI: confidence interval; CIA: clean indoor air; CO: carbon monoxide; f: females; I: intervention; ITC: International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project; m: males; MACC: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort; MCS: Millennium Cohort Study; NR: not reported; ppm: parts per million; SOEP: Socio-Economic Panel Study; TUS-CPS: Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States.