Table 5: Effects of advertising and sponsorship of tobacco products on smoking prevalence.

Author, yearCountry
(Data source)
Study designDates of data collectionPopulationIntervention, n Smoking measureEffect on smoking prevalence

                                                        Smoking prevalence

White et al., 2011 [16]Australia (cross-sectional surveys of secondary schools)Before/after w/comparison1990–2005Youths, age 12–17Scoring system based on the extent to which policies have been adoptedSmoked in the past monthaOR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.05)

Sloan and Trogdon, 2004 [33]US (BRFSS)Before/after w/o comparison1990–2002Adults, age 18+;
35–46% male
Any advertising restrictions*, 1,762,686Daily or some day smoker18 to 20 years old
Coeff. (se): −0.016 (0.012); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
21 to 24 years old
Coeff. (se): −0.017 (0.010); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
25 to 44 years old
Coeff. (se): −0.005 (0.007); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
45 to 64 years old
Coeff. (se): −0.004 (0.006); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5
65+ year olds
Coeff. (se): −0.006 (0.006); 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5

Galduróz et al., 2007 [67]Brazil (original data collection)Before/after w/o comparison1997–2004Youths, age 11–18;
42% male
Advertising ban on the following media: billboard, print, radio, sponsorship, sporting or cultural activity, TV, 15,501 and 21,172Lifetime use of tobaccoBaseline prevalence: 32.7%
Smoking prevalence 4 years after ad ban: 25.0%

Fielding et al., 2004 [68]Hong Kong (original data collection)Before/after w/o comparison1990–2001Youths, aged 8–10Advertising ban on the following media: broadcast media (1990), billboards, print (1999), 824Ever smokedBaseline prevalence: 7.8%
Follow-up smoking prevalence: 3.8%

Siahpush et al., 2009 [30]Australia (Roy Morgan Single Source)Before/after w/o comparison1991–2006Adults, age 18+;
ages 18–29: 21%;
ages 30–49: 41%;
ages 50+: 38%;
48% male
National ban on tobacco sponsorship, bringing 2 remaining states into line with the 3 states that had already banned tobacco sponsorship at the state level (December, 1995), 515,866Do you now smoke factory-made cigarettes? In the last month, have you smoked any roll-your-own cigarettes?aRR = 1.00, 𝑃 = 0 . 9 0

*Based on data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System.
Preban sample size.
Postban sample size.
aRR: adjusted rate ratio; aOR: adjusted odds ratio; BRFSS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; CI: confidence interval; coeff.: coefficient; se: standard error.