Table 6: Effects of health warning labels on smoking cessation and prevalence.

Author, yearCountry
(data source)
Study designDates of data collectionPopulationIntervention, n Smoking measureEffect on smoking cessation, or prevalence

                                                        Smoking cessation

Borland et al., 2009 [70]Australia, Canada, UK, and US (ITC)Longitudinal2002–2006Adults, age 18+Australia
(B) 6 rotating, text labels, 25% of front, 33% of back;
(I) 14 rotating, graphic labels, 30% of front, 90% of back*, 2305;
Canada
(B) 16 rotating, graphic labels, 50% of pack, 2214;
UK
(B) 6 rotating, text labels, 6% of front;
(I-1) 16 rotating, text labels, 30% of front, 40% of back;
(I-2) banned use of “light”, “mild”, 2401;
US
(B) 4 rotating, text labels on side, 2138
Made a quit attempt lasting more than 24 hours since previous survey, and among those who did, whether quit attempt lasted at least 1 monthAustralia
F1 quit rate: 14.99%
F2 quit rate: 22.93%
F3 quit rate: 25.15%
F4 quit rate: 25.90%
Canada
F1 quit rate: 19.84%
F2 quit rate: 23.96%
F3 quit rate: 22.81%
F4 quit rate: 21.34%
United Kingdom
F1 quit rate: 16.83%
F2 quit rate: 22.68%
F3 quit rate: 28.93%
F4 quit rate: 23.94%
United States
F1 quit rate: 14.42%
F2 quit rate: 19.23%
F3 quit rate: 20.31%
F4 quit rate: 20.36%

Borland, 1997 [69]Australia (original data collection)Longitudinal1994-1995Adults, age 16+; 51% male(B) 4 rotating, text-only labels covering 15% of front and back of package, 510;
(I) 6 rotating, text-only labels covering 25% of front and 33% of back of package, 243
Quit smoking at followup for at least 1 weekQuit rate: 11%

                                                        Smoking prevalence

Siahpush et al., 2009 [30]Australia (Roy Morgan Single Source)Before/after w/o comparison1991–2006Adults, age 18+; ages 18–29: 21%;
ages 30–49: 41%;
ages 50+: 38%;
48% male
(I) 6 rotating, text-only labels covering 25% of front and 33% of back of package, 515,866Do you now smoke factory-made cigarettes? In the last month, have you smoked any roll-your-own cigarettes?aRR = 1.00; 𝑃 = 0 . 9 6

Gospodinov and Irvine, 2004 [71]Canada (CTUMS)Before/after w/o comparison2000-2001Adults, age 15+;
46% male
(B) text only, 9729;
(I) 16 rotating, graphic labels, 50% of pack, 10447
Current cigarette smokingSmoking prevalence:
(B) 25.0%
(I) 23.4%
Marginal effect prevalence rate ratio: −0.0034 (95% CI: −0.029, 0.021; se = 0.01)

*Health warning label also included the quitline phone number.
aRR: adjusted rate ratio; B: baseline; CI: confidence interval; CTUMS: Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Surveys; F: followup period; I: intervention; ITC: International Tobacco Control Policy Research Survey; se: standard error; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States.