About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 675426, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/675426
Research Article

Smokeless Tobacco and Dual Use among Firefighters in the Central United States

Center for Fire Rescue and EMS Health Research, Institute for Biobehavioral Health Research, National Development and Research Institutes, 1920 West 143rd Street, Leawood, KS 66224, USA

Received 15 October 2012; Revised 18 February 2013; Accepted 18 February 2013

Academic Editor: Edward Trapido

Copyright © 2013 Nattinee Jitnarin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Rodu and P. Cole, “Smokeless tobacco use among men in the united States, 2000 and 2005,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 545–550, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. King, S. Dube, R. Kaufmann, L. Shaw, and T. Pechacek, “Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥18 Years—United States, 2005–2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 60, no. 35, pp. 1207–1212, 2011.
  3. C. M. Carpenter, G. N. Connolly, O. A. Ayo-Yusuf, and G. F. Wayne, “Developing smokeless tobacco products for smokers: an examination of tobacco industry documents,” Tobacco Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 54–59, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Bates, K. Fagerström, M. J. Jarvis, M. Kunze, A. McNeill, and L. Ramström, “European Union policy on smokeless tobacco: a statement in favour of evidence based regulation for public health,” Tobacco Control, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 360–367, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. C. Klesges, D. Sherrill-Mittleman, J. O. Ebbert, G. W. Talcott, and M. DeBon, “Tobacco use harm reduction, elimination, and escalation in a large military cohort,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 2487–2492, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. K. Haddock, M. V. Weg, M. DeBon et al., “Evidence that smokeless tobacco use is a gateway for smoking initiation in young adult males,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 262–267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. H. Severson, K. K. Forrester, and A. Biglan, “Use of smokeless tobacco is a risk factor for cigarette smoking,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1331–1337, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. National Toxicology Program (NTP), Report on Carcinogen, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 12th edition, 2011.
  9. J. O. Ebbert, C. K. Haddock, M. Vander Weg, R. C. Klesges, W. S. C. Poston, and M. DeBon, “Predictors of smokeless tobacco initiation in a young adult military cohort,” American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 103–112, 2006. View at Scopus
  10. R. M. Bray, M. R. Pemberton, L. L. Hourani, et al., 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Military Personnel: A Component of the Defense Lifestyle Assessment Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 2009, http://www.tricare.mil/tma/2008HealthBehaviors.pdf.
  11. W. S. C. Poston, C. K. Haddock, N. Jitnarin, and S. A. Jahnke, “A national qualitative study of tobacco use among career firefighters,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 734–741, 2012.
  12. D. J. Lee, W. LeBlanc, L. E. Fleming, O. Gómez-Marín, and T. Pitman, “Trends in U.S. smoking-rates in occupational groups: the National Health Interview Survey 1987–1994,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 538–548, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. K. Haddock, N. Jitnarin, W. S. C. Poston, B. Tuley, and S. A. Jahnke, “Tobacco use among firefighters in the Central United States,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 697–706, 2011.
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Smokeless Tobacco Facts,” 2011, http://www.ncada-stl.org/ti/notebook/tobacco/smokeless_tobacco_facts.pdf.
  15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA), “Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings,” NSDUH Series H-41, HHS Publication (SMA) 11-4658, SAMHSA, Rockville, Md, USA, 2011, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k10NSDUH/2k10Results.htm#Ch4.
  16. K. I. Rosendahl and M. R. Galanti, “Predictors of early and late escalation of smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking among Swedish adolescents,” The Open Addiction Journal, vol. 3, pp. 50–54, 2010.
  17. H. A. Lando, C. K. Haddock, L. A. Robinson, R. C. Klesges, and G. W. Talcott, “Ethnic differences in patterns and correlates of age of initiation in a population of Air Force recruits,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 337–344, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. A. Mumford, D. T. Levy, J. G. Gitchell, and K. O. Blackman, “Tobacco control policies and the concurrent use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes among men, 1992–2002,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 891–900, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. W. Wetter, J. B. McClure, C. De Moor et al., “Concomitant use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: prevalence, correlates, and predictors of tobacco cessation,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 638–648, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire 2010,” http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/questionnaires/pdf-ques/2010brfss.pdf.
  21. National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity: The Evidence Report, US Government Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  22. A. S. Jackson, S. N. Blair, M. T. Mahar, L. T. Wier, R. M. Ross, and J. E. Stuteville, “Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 863–870, 1990. View at Scopus
  23. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), NFPA 1582: Standards on Comprehensive Occupational Medicine Programs for Fire Departments, Quincy, Mass, USA, NFPA, 2006.
  24. US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  25. M. Irwin, K. H. Artin, and M. N. Oxman, “Screening for depression in the older adult: criterion validity of the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D),” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 15, pp. 1701–1704, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Cohen and G. Williamson, “Perceived stress in a probability sample of the U.S.,” in The Social Psychology of Health: Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology, S. Spacapam and S. Oskamp, Eds., Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 1988.
  27. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies, 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 2009, http://oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k10MRB/2k10Q.pdf.
  28. M. W. Vander Weg, M. DeBon, D. Sherrill-Mittleman, R. C. Klesges, and G. E. Relyea, “Binge drinking, drinking and driving, and riding with a driver who had been drinking heavily among air national guard and air force reserve personnel,” Military Medicine, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2006. View at Scopus
  29. C. P. O'Brien, “The CAGE questionnaire for detection of alcoholism: a remarkably useful but simple tool,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 17, pp. 2054–2056, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Block, C. Gillespie, E. H. Rosenbaum, and C. Jenson, “A rapid food screener to assess fat and fruit and vegetable intake,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 284–288, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. B. Holiday, J. W. McLarty, R. H. Yanagihara, L. Riley, and S. B. Shepherd, “Two biochemical markers effectively used to separate smokeless tobacco users from smokers and nonusers,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1107–1113, 1995. View at Scopus
  32. H. H. Severson, “What have we learned from 20 years of research on smokeless tobacco cessation?” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 326, no. 4, pp. 206–211, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. M. Bray, J. A. Fairbank, and M. E. Marsden, “Stress and substance use among military women and men,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 239–256, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus