About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 968078, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/968078
Research Article

Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

1Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2School of Social and Policy Studies, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
3Health Promotion Branch, Department of Health and Ageing, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia

Received 6 June 2012; Revised 6 December 2012; Accepted 13 December 2012

Academic Editor: David Strogatz

Copyright © 2013 Paul R. Ward et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Harrison, T. Coyne, A. J. Lee et al., “The increasing cost of the basic foods required to promote health in Queensland,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2007. View at Scopus
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics, “Consumer price index Australia: June quarter 2008,” July 2008, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/8D94183E5AB6CA19CA25748E0012B013/$File/64010_jun%202008.pdf.
  3. G. Turrell, B. Hewitt, C. Patterson, B. Oldenburg, and T. Gould, “Socioeconomic differences in food purchasing behaviour and suggested implications for diet-related health promotion,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 355–364, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Monsivais, A. Aggarwal, and A. Drewnowski, “Are socio-economic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 66, pp. 530–535, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Booth and A. Smith, “Food security and poverty in Australia—challenges for dietitians,” Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 150–156, 2001.
  6. N. Wrigley, D. Warm, B. Margetts, and M. Lowe, “The Leeds “food deserts” intervention study: what the focus groups reveal,” International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 123–136, 2004.
  7. S. I. Kirkpatrick and V. Tarasuk, “Adequacy of food spending is related to housing expenditures among lower-income Canadian households,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1464–1473, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Douglas, “Food insecurity in Northern Adelaide,” in SACOSS News, chapter 8, SACOSS, Adelaide, Australia, 2006.
  9. I. Law, P. Ward, and J. Coveney, “Food insecurity in South Australian single parents: a livelihoods framework approach,” Critical Public Health, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 455–469, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Commonwealth of Australia, Report of the ACCC Inquiry into the Competitiveness of Retail Prices for Standard Groceries, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Canberra, Australia, 2008.
  11. Commonwealth of Australia, “GROCERYchoice,” 2008, http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/847778/.
  12. “Government in a spin while Australian retailing comes up trumps—retail response to ACCC Grocery Prices Inquiry,” 2008, http://www.getfarming.com.au/pages/farming/articles_view.php?fId=9200020080808141316.
  13. J. Irvine, “Rudd price check: he's powerless,” in Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax, Sydney, Australia, 2008.
  14. A. Stoeckel, High Food Prices: Causes, Implications and Solutions, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Editor, Australian Government, Canberra, Australia, 2008.
  15. National Preventative Health Taskforce, “Australia: the healthiest country by 2020,” Discussion Paper, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia, 2008.
  16. L. Rychetnik, K. Webb, L. Story, and T. Katz, Food Security Options Paper: A Planning Framework and Menu of Options for Policy and Practice Interventions, NSW Centre for Public Health Nutrition, Sydney, Australia, 2003.
  17. C. Burns, A Review of the Literature Describing the Link between Poverty, Food Insecurity and Obesity with Specific Reference to Australia, VicHealth, Victoria, Australia, 2004.
  18. G. Marks, et al., Key Food and Nutrition Data for Australia 1990–1999, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia, 2001.
  19. W. Foley, P. Ward, P. Carter, J. Coveney, G. Tsourtos, and A. Taylor, “An ecological analysis of factors associated with food insecurity in South Australia, 2002–7,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Shannon, “Acculturation: aboriginal and torres strait islander nutrition,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 11, supplement 3, pp. S576–S578, 2002. View at Scopus
  21. D. Gallegos, P. Ellies, and J. Wright, “Still there's no food! Food insecurity in a refugee population in Perth, Western Australia,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 78–83, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. NSW Centre for Public Health Nutrition, Food Security Options Paper: A Planning Framework and Menu of Options for Policy and Practice Interventions, NSW Department of Health & The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 2003.
  23. C. M. Champagne, P. H. Casey, C. L. Connell et al., “Poverty and food intake in rural America: diet quality is lower in food insecure adults in the Mississippi Delta,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 107, no. 11, pp. 1886–1894, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. V. Tarasuk, L. Mcintyre, and J. Li, “Low-income women's dietary intakes are sensitive to the depletion of household resources in one month,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 8, pp. 1980–1987, 2007. View at Scopus
  25. A. M. Hamelin, M. Beaudry, and J. P. Habicht, “Characterization of household food insecurity in Québec: food and feelings,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 119–132, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. S. Martin and A. M. Ferris, “Food insecurity and gender are risk factors for obesity,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. T. Vozoris and V. S. Tarasuk, “Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 120–126, 2003. View at Scopus
  28. H. K. Seligman, A. B. Bindman, E. Vittinghoff, A. M. Kanaya, and M. B. Kushel, “Food insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1018–1023, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Drewnowski and S. E. Specter, “Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 6–16, 2004. View at Scopus
  30. K. C. Wong, J. Coveney, P. Ward et al., “Availability, affordability and quality of a healthy food basket in Adelaide, South Australia,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. I. Kirkpatrick and V. Tarasuk, “Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 604–612, 2008. View at Scopus
  32. K. Alaimo, C. M. Olson, E. A. Frongillo, and R. R. Briefel, “Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 781–786, 2001. View at Scopus
  33. D. Polit, A. London, and J. Martinez, Food Security and Hunger in Poor, Mother-Headed Families in Four U.S. Cities. The Project on Devolution and Urban Change Working Paper, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  34. M. S. Harrison, T. Coyne, A. J. Lee et al., “The increasing cost of the basic foods required to promote health in Queensland,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2007. View at Scopus
  35. A. J. M. Donkin, E. A. Dowler, S. J. Stevenson, and S. A. Turner, “Mapping access to food in a deprived area: the development of price and availability indices,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2000. View at Scopus
  36. A. Ellaway and S. Macintyre, “Shopping for food in socially contrasting localities,” British Food Journal, vol. 102, pp. 52–59, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. L. Mcintyre, “Food security: more than a determinant of health,” Policy Options, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 46–51, 2003.
  38. P. R. Ward, J. Coveney, F. Verity, P. Carter, and M. Schilling, “Cost and affordability of healthy food in rural South Australia,” Rural and Remote Health, vol. 12, p. 1938, 2012.
  39. G. Turrell and A. M. Kavanagh, “Socio-economic pathways to diet: modelling the association between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 375–383, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Coveney and L. A. O'Dwyer, “Effects of mobility and location on food access,” Health and Place, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. Inglis, K. Ball, and D. Crawford, “Socioeconomic variations in women's diets: what is the role of perceptions of the local food environment?” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 191–197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Foley, C. Pollard, and D. McGuiness, “Food Cent$: achieving a balanced diet on a limited food budget,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 167–172, 1997.
  43. Food Standards Agency, Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey: Summary of Key Findings, The Stationary Office, London, UK, 2007.
  44. A. Tsang, M. W. Ndung'u, J. Coveney, and L. O'Dwyer, “Adelaide Healthy Food Basket: a survey on food cost, availability and affordability in five local government areas in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 241–247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Ball, A. Timperio, and D. Crawford, “Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability,” Health and Place, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 578–585, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Järvelä, J. Mäkelä, and S. Piiroinen, “Consumers' everyday food choice strategies in Finland,” International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 309–317, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. G. Enticott, “Risking the rural: nature, morality and the consumption of unpasteurised milk,” Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 411–424, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. M. Green, A. K. Draper, and E. A. Dowler, “Short cuts to safety: risk and 'rules of thumb' in accounts of food choice,” Health, Risk and Society, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 33–52, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Glanz, M. Basil, E. Maibach, J. Goldberg, and D. Snyder, “Why Americans eat what they do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1118–1126, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. Neumark-Sztainer, M. Story, C. Perry, and M. A. Casey, “Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus- group discussions with adolescents,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 929–937, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Rozin, C. Fischler, S. Imada, A. Sarubin, and A. Wrzesniewski, “Attitudes to food and the role of food in life in the U.S.A., Japan, Flemish Belgium and France: possible implications for the diet-health debate,” Appetite, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 163–180, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Roininen, H. Tuorila, E. H. Zandstra et al., “Differences in health and taste attitudes and reported behaviour among finnish, Dutch and British consumers: a cross-national validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS),” Appetite, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 33–45, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Ward, L. Mamerow, J. Henderson, A. W. Taylor, S. B. Meyer, and J. Coveney, “The social determinants of food purchasing practices: who chooses price-before-health, taste-before-price, or organic foods in Australia?” Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 461–470, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. Queensland Health, The 2000 Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) Survey: Full Report, Queensland Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2001.
  55. P. Williams, J. James, and J. Kwan, “The Illawarra Healthy Food Price Index 2: pricing methods and index trends from 2000-2003,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 208–214, 2004.
  56. P. Williams, M. Reid, and K. Shaw, “The Illawarra Healthy Food Price Index 1: development of the food basket,” Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 200–207, 2004.
  57. Department of Health and Community Services, NT Market Basket Survey 2007, Northern Territory Government, Darwin, Australia, 2007.
  58. J. Meedeniya, A. Smith, and P. Carter, Food Supply in Rural South Australia: A Survey on Food Cost, Quality and Variety, South Australian Government, Adelaide, Australia, 2000.
  59. National Health and Medical Research Council, Recommended Dietary Intakes for Use in Australia, NHMRC, Canberra, Australia, 1991.
  60. C. Palermo and A. Wilson, “Development of a healthy food basket for Victoria,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 360–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Family Characteristics, Australia, June 2003, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2004.
  62. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2009.
  63. Department of Health and Ageing and National Health and Medical Research Council, Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia, 2006.
  64. C. E. Palermo, K. Z. Walker, P. Hill, and J. McDonald, “The cost of healthy food in rural Victoria,” Rural and Remote Health, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 1074, 2008. View at Scopus
  65. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia, 2005-06, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2007.
  66. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Price Index—March Quarter 2009, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2009.
  67. P. Williams, A. Hull, and M. Kontos, “Trends in affordability of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket, 2000/2007,” Nutrition & Dietetics, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2009.
  68. J. Disney, Affordable Housing in Australia: Some Key Problems and Priorities for Action, National Forum on Affordable Housing, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.
  69. J. Yates and M. Gabriel, Housing Affrodability in Australia, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Sydney, Australia, 2006.
  70. Australian Council of Social Services, Submission to the Senate Inquiry into Housing Affordability, ACOSS, Sydney, Australia, 2007.
  71. South Australian Council of Social Services, Cost of Living Biannual Update, No. 2, SACOSS, Adelaide, Australia, 2009.
  72. A. Drewnowski and A. Barratt-Fornell, “Do healthier diets cost more?” Nutrition Today, vol. 39, pp. 161–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. A. Drewnowski and N. Darmon, “The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. S265–S273, 2005. View at Scopus
  74. C. Ni Mhurchu, T. Blakely, Y. Jiang, H. C. Eyles, and A. Rodgers, “Effects of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket purchases: a randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 736–747, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Hillier, C. Cannuscio, A. Karpyn, J. Mclaughlin, M. Chilton, and K. Glanz, “How far do low-income parents travel to shop for food? Empirical evidence from two urban neighborhoods,” Urban Geography, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 712–729, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. A. O'Dwyer and J. Coveney, “Scoping supermarket availability and accessibility by socio-economic status in Adelaide,” Health Promotion Journal of Australia, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 240–246, 2006. View at Scopus
  77. T. Pearson, J. Russell, M. J. Campbell, and M. E. Barker, “Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?—a cross-sectional study,” Appetite, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 195–197, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Whelan, N. Wrigley, D. Warm, and E. Cannings, “Life in a ‘food desert’,” Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2083–2100, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. White, et al., “Do ‘food deserts’ exist?” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 34, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. N. Wrigley, “‘Food deserts’ in British cities: policy context and research priorities,” Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2029–2040, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. Wrigley, D. Warm, B. Margetts, and A. Whelan, “Assessing the impact of improved retail access on diet in a 'food desert': a preliminary report,” Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2061–2082, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Harrison, A. Lee, M. Findlay, R. Nicholls, D. Leonard, and C. Martin, “The increasing cost of healthy food,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. S. Anderson, J. Dewar, D. Marshall et al., “The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies—identification of key food items,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1440–1447, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Cummins and S. Macintyre, “A systematic study of an urban foodscape: the price and availability of food in greater Glasgow,” Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2115–2130, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. Ni Mhurchu and S. Ogra, “The price of healthy eating: cost and nutrient value of selected regular and healthier supermarket foods in New Zealand,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 120, no. 1248, 2007. View at Scopus
  86. P. Monsivais, J. Mclain, and A. Drewnowski, “The rising disparity in the price of healthful foods: 2004–2008,” Food Policy, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 514–520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus