Journal of Food Processing The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Microwave Pretreatment of Apple Raw Material on the Nutrients and Antioxidant Activities of Apple Juice Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:43:41 +0000 Microwave technology has been widely applied in food processing. To investigate the effects of microwave pretreatment of raw material on the nutrients and antioxidant activities of apple juice, the apple materials were treated with 90, 270, 450, 720, and 900 W microwave at 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 s, respectively. The results showed that after the raw materials were treated with microwave, the vitamin C, amino nitrogen, and anthocyanin content decreased, and the total flavonoids and polyphenol of apple juice increased. Further, the total polyphenol of apple juice originating from raw material treated with 900 W microwave through 75 s was 115% higher than that of control samples. The antioxidant activities of prepared apple juice increased in terms of diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. So appropriate microwave pretreatment of apple raw material could increase some specific nutrients and enhance the antioxidant activities of apple juice. Shaoying Zhang and Rui Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shaoying Zhang and Rui Zhang. All rights reserved. A Study on the Quality Criteria of Some Mandarin Varieties and Their Suitability for Juice Processing Tue, 26 Aug 2014 06:53:19 +0000 In this study, some composition properties of juices of different mandarin varieties (Robinson (R), Fremont (F), and Satsuma (S)) were determined before and after pasteurisation. , , , and values of all varieties were increased after the pasteurisation process. Degradation of ascorbic acid was calculated as 2.20, 16.86, and 24.31% for R, F, and S samples, respectively, after pasteurisation. The highest total carotenoid and phenolic contents were determined in S samples. In general, after the pasteurisation treatment, the total carotenoid content of juices was increased slightly, but total phenolic contents were dramatically decreased. The antioxidant activity of pasteurised samples was increased by approximately 6%. The most abundant carotenoid and flavanone glycoside compound was shown to be β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin, respectively, in all samples. The most popular fresh and pasteurised juice samples were made from the Robinson variety of mandarin with regard to taste, smell, and general impression. Erdal Ağçam and Asiye Akyıldız Copyright © 2014 Erdal Ağçam and Asiye Akyıldız. All rights reserved. Application of Hydrothermally Modified Sweet Potato Starch as a Substitute Additive for Soup Mixture Mon, 25 Aug 2014 10:45:57 +0000 Potential application of modified sweet potato starch as a substitute thickener for corn starch was studied, by using native starches extracted from five different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly available in Sri Lanka. Physicochemical properties (swelling power, water solubility index, pasting, and gelatinization) and digestibility of native and modified (heat-moisture treated, 20% moisture, 85°C for 6 hrs) starches were analysed. Modified Swp3 (Wariyapola white), Swp4 (Pallepola), and Swp5 (Malaysian) starches were selected based on the favourable conditions shown in the required physical and chemical properties and applied in a vegetable soup formula as a thickening aid. Corn starch added samples were kept as controls and the viscosity difference and sensory attributes were tested. Viscosity of the reconstituted soup powder and sensory analysis showed that Swp4 and Swp5 had significantly high level () of sensory quality and the average rank for mouth feel (taste), texture and overall acceptability was significantly high () in Swp5 added samples. Shelf life studies ensured 6 months of stability with negligible level of moisture increase and total plate count in air tight polypropylene packages at ambient temperatures (28–31°C). Results of this study revealed a possibility of applying physically modified Swp4 and Swp5 starches as a substituent food ingredient for commercially available corn starch to improve the thickness of food products. S. A. Senanayake, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, A. Gunaratne, and A. Bamunuarachchi Copyright © 2014 S. A. Senanayake et al. All rights reserved. Chicken Collagen from Law Market Value By-Products as an Alternate Source Sun, 17 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 There has been much interest in investigating possible means of making collagen from underutilized chicken by-products and it will lead to an alternate source of collagen for use in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biomedical materials, and the food industry. The objective of this research was to find methods to extract collagen from chicken skins and bones to compare the corresponding yield differences and analyze their properties. Collagen extracted by acetic acid, citric acid, alkali, one-step acetic acid and pepsin, and two-step acetic acid and pepsin extraction procedures was compared. Complete randomized design, Student’s t-test, and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the samples . The recovered dry weights for the skin extractions were 6.1, 6.2, 5, 38.7, and 40.4% and those of bone extractions were 4.4, 4.1, 4.1, 19.1, and 20.6%, respectively. Protein, fat, and inorganic material contents of collagen preparations for skin were 62.7%, 1.5%, and 0.7% and for bone were 30.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. This study indicates that chicken by-products have high potential use as an alternate source of collagen. Kumudini A. Munasinghe, Jurgen G. Schwarz, and Anthony K. Nyame Copyright © 2014 Kumudini A. Munasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Traceability and Recall Plans of Food Processing Plants and Small and Medium Enterprises in Kelantan, Malaysia Mon, 04 Aug 2014 12:49:34 +0000 Food processing plants and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) need an excellent and reliable traceability system to ensure that consumers are well protected from consuming unsafe food. The traceability systems are being implemented by different food industries all around the world including Malaysia. This study aims to determine the implementation status of traceability system among food processing plants and SMEs. Another important goal is to identify the Critical Traceability Points (CTPs) in food processing and SMEs’ supply chains. A survey involving 17 processing plants and 53 SMEs from Kelantan, Malaysia, on the traceability and product recall system was conducted. The findings revealed that the food processing plants and SMEs are interested in implementing traceability system but they lack information and capital to carry out the system. Receiving and dispatching were identified as the CTPs in food processing plants and SMEs. Only 52.9% of the participants had implemented or were interested in implementation of traceability system. Several factors resulting in the lack of traceability implementation are due to time limitation, no perceivable benefits to the company’s economy and lack of clear policy guidance and support from government. Afiza Izzati Mat Aris and Jan Mei Soon Copyright © 2014 Afiza Izzati Mat Aris and Jan Mei Soon. All rights reserved. Absolute Viscosities of Vegetable Oils at Different Temperatures and Shear Rate Range of 64.5 to 4835 s−1 Sun, 03 Aug 2014 09:50:51 +0000 A study was carried out to determine the effect of higher shear rates (64.5 to 4835 s−1) on the absolute viscosities of different vegetable oils at different temperatures (26 to 90°C). The absolute viscosities of the different vegetable oils were determined using a Lamy Viscometer RM100, a rotating viscometer with coaxial cylinder. The torque of each sample at different temperatures was recorded at different shear rates. Based on the rheograms (plot of mean shear stress against shear rate), all of the vegetable oils studied were found to be Newtonian fluids. Rice bran oil was the most viscous (0.0398 Pa·s at 38°C) while walnut oil was the least viscous (0.0296 Pa·s at 38°C) among the oils studied. The higher shear range used did not significantly affect the absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils at the different temperatures. The absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils decreased with increasing temperature and can be fitted with an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies for the different vegetable oils ranged from 21 to 30 kJ/mole. The peanut and safflower oils had the highest and lowest activation energies, respectively. This means that greater energy was needed to effect a viscosity change in the peanut oil. Lemuel M. Diamante and Tianying Lan Copyright © 2014 Lemuel M. Diamante and Tianying Lan. All rights reserved. Effect of Processing Conditions on Calcium Content, Firmness, and Color of Papaya in Syrup Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:18:45 +0000 Calcium impregnation is used as a pretreatment in the processing of papaya in syrup. The effect of process temperature (30 and 45°C), calcium source (calcium gluconate and calcium lactate), calcium concentration (0.5 and 1.5% w/w), and pH (4.2 and 6) were studied. The mineral source affected significantly the calcium uptake and the fruit firmness, and therefore, the product quality maximum content of calcium in the fruit was 240 and 72 mg/100 g fresh fruit in 8 h of treatment with calcium lactate and calcium gluconate, respectively. Greater firmness was observed in samples impregnated with calcium lactate. Impregnation treatments did not affect the surface color of fruit. Finally, the effect of cooking in sucrose syrup on product quality attributes (calcium retention, firmness, and color) was analyzed. Cooking in syrup had a positive effect on tissue firmness, despite the decrease of calcium content. During cooking in syrup, calcium content of treated fruit decreased between 9% and 37%. However, the calcium content of fruit in syrup was up to 6 times higher than in fresh fruit. Moreover, the cooking stage had a strong influence on color parameters, leading to a processed product darker than fresh fruit. Nancy Lovera, Laura Ramallo, and Viviana Salvadori Copyright © 2014 Nancy Lovera et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Different Enzymes and Concentrations in the Production of Clarified Lemon Juice Sun, 01 Jun 2014 08:49:41 +0000 Lemon juice obtained from Interdonato variety was treated with different enzymes at specific concentrations as depectinization processes to produce clear lemon juice and its concentrates. In addition, the best condition obtained from laboratory treatments was carried out in the local fruit juice plant. Effects of the processing steps on some quality parameters were investigated during the lemon juice production and the obtained concentrates were stored at −25°C for 180 days. The results showed that Novozym 33095 had the best depectinization effectiveness. Total pectin content of lemon juices decreased rapidly following the enzyme treatment and could not be detected following the filtration. Viscosity values decreased after pulp separation and the largest reduction was observed with the filtration. At the end of filtration in 40 μL/100 mL concentrations of each of the three enzymes, values of residual pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were found to be in the lowest amounts. Filiz Uçan, Asiye Akyildiz, and Erdal Ağçam Copyright © 2014 Filiz Uçan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Nitrite Radical Scavenging Properties of Selected Zimbabwean Plant Extracts and Their Phytoconstituents Sun, 06 Apr 2014 13:24:36 +0000 Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been associated with disease. The search for natural antioxidants of plant origin is necessitated by the side effects associated with synthetic antioxidants currently available. The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Combretum zeyheri, Combretum platypetalum, and Parinari curatellifolia extracts by determining nitrite radical scavenging ability. The nitrite radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extracts. The total flavonoid content of P. curatellifolia methanol extract was determined by the aluminium calorimetric method. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of C. zeyheri, C. platypetalum, and P. curatellifolia extracts exhibited nitrite radical scavenging activity. The results show the scavenging activity in the order of potency: P. curatellifolia > C. platypetalum > C. zeyheri with concentration values of 103 µg/mL, 158 µg/mL, and 188 µg/mL for the ethanol extracts and 92.5 µg/mL, 97.5 µg/mL, and 198 µg/mL for the water extracts, respectively. P. curatellifolia ethanol extract was the most potent and the total flavonoid content was estimated to be 0.4 ± 0.05 mg/g quercetin and could account for the activity. Thus, our findings provide evidence that C. zeyheri, C. platypetalum, and P. curatellifolia leaf extracts could be potential sources of natural antioxidants. Fadzai Boora, Elaine Chirisa, and Stanley Mukanganyama Copyright © 2014 Fadzai Boora et al. All rights reserved. Moisture Diffusivity and Shrinkage of Fruit and Cladode of Opuntia ficus-indica during Infrared Drying Thu, 03 Apr 2014 13:40:00 +0000 Drying behaviour of prickly pear cladodes and fruits was studied with an Infrared dryer. The volume shrinkage for Opuntia ficus-indica products is calculated and a linear relation was established to describe the experimental variation of shrinkage of the product versus its moisture content. Effective diffusion coefficient of moisture transfer was determined using the Fick law at three drying temperatures (40, 50, and 60°C). Shrinkage was also included into the diffusion model for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient. The obtained results of the effective moisture diffusivity, for the cladode and the fruit, were evaluated in the range of 1.77 × 10−10–5.07 × 10−10 m2/s and 2.53 × 10−10–7.6 × 10−10 m2/s, respectively. The values of the activation energies for cladode and fruit were estimated to be 45.39 and 47.79 kJ/mol, respectively. However, these values of moisture diffusivity were estimated independently of the evolution of moisture content during drying process. Therefore, a correlation (full quadratic equation) for moisture diffusivity as a function of moisture content and temperature was developed. The parameters are obtained by a multilinear regression method. This equation was found satisfactory to describe the diffusivity evolution function of moisture content and temperature with correlation coefficients of 91.5 and 95%. Amira Touil, Saber Chemkhi, and Fethi Zagrouba Copyright © 2014 Amira Touil et al. All rights reserved. Effects of the Domestic Cooking on Elemental Chemical Composition of Beans Species (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Sun, 02 Mar 2014 07:34:34 +0000 Cooking is imperative for beans owing to the presence of compounds that can negatively affect nutritional value. Additionally, the heating of beans can increase protein digestibility and induce desirable sensory properties. However, cooking also causes considerable changes in the composition of numerous chemical constituents, including amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. For this, effects of domestic cooking on the essential element concentrations in various beans species (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were investigated using jalo, fradinho, rajado, rosinha, bolinha, black, and common species. Elemental determination was made with flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after sample digestion in a closed-vessel microwave oven using a diluted oxidant mixture. Analytical methods were evaluated with an addition and recovery test and analysis of certified reference materials (apple and citrus leaves). Ca, Cu, K, and Mg were present mainly in rajado, Cu in jalo, Fe in black, S and Zn in fradinho, and P in rosinha species. Thermal treatment did not affect Cu, Fe, S, and Zn concentrations, but it increased Ca, K, Mg, P, and Zn concentrations in jalo and black species. Ca concentration decreased in fradinho and rajado species, as did Fe concentration in jalo and rajado species. Alessandra S. T. Ferreira, Juliana Naozuka, Gislayne A. R. Kelmer, and Pedro V. Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Alessandra S. T. Ferreira et al. All rights reserved.