- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Function Spaces and Applications

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 405368, 14 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/405368

## Note on Boehmians for Class of Optical Fresnel Wavelet Transforms

^{1}Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman 11134, Jordan^{2}Department of Mathematics and Institute of Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia

Received 4 July 2012; Accepted 27 August 2012

Academic Editor: Manuel Ruiz Galan

Copyright © 2012 S. K. Q. Al-Omari and A. Kılıçman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We extend the Fresnel-wavelet transform to the context of generalized functions, namely, Boehmians. At first, we study the Fresnel-wavelet transform in the sense of distributions of compact support. Based on this concept, we introduce two new spaces of Boehmians and proving certain related results. Further, we show that the extended transform establishes a linear and an isomorphic mapping between the Boehmian
spaces. Moreover, conditions of continuity of the extended transform and its inverse with
respect to *δ* and Δ convergence are discussed in some details.

#### 1. Introduction

Optical integral transforms have been studied in several works, for example, [1–8]. However, is the Fresnel transform among all the great importance [5, 9] where for which the kernel takes the form of a complex exponential function , for some constants , and . The generalization of the Fresnel transform called the linear canonical transform was introduced in [10] and has recently attracted considerable attention in optics, see [4, 11]. One of the very well-known linear transform is the wavelet transform, see [12, 13] we have where is named as the mother wavelet such that and are the transform dilate and translate of the wavelet and being the complex conjugate of . The optical diffraction transform is described by the Fresnel integration in [5, 9] as follows:

The parameters are elements of more ray transfer Matrix describing optical systems, . For a details of Fresnel integrals, see [14, 15].

Note that many familiar transforms can be considered as special cases of the diffraction Fresnel transform. For example, if the parameters , and are written in the following matrix form: then the diffraction Fresnel transform, the generalized Fresnel Transform becomes a fractional Fourier transform, see [11, 16, 17].

In the present work, we consider a combined optical transform of Fresnel and wavelet transforms, namely, the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform defined by [9] with kernel

The parameters , and appearing in (1.5) are elements of matrix with unit determinant.

As the general single-mode squeezing operator of the generalized Fresnel transform is in wave optics, further its applications are having a faithful representation in the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform, see [9]. Therefore the combined optical Fresnel-wavelet transform can be more conveniently studied by the general single-mode squeezed operation.

However, our discussion is somewhat different and making more interesting. Since the theory of the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform of generalized functions has not been reported in the literature. Thus, we extend the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform to a specific space of generalized functions, namely, known as Boehmian space. In Section 2, we observe that the kernel function of the Fresnel-wavelet transform is a smooth function, and therefore the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform is defined as an adjoint operator in the space of distributions. In a concrete way, Section 3 builds an appropriate space of Boehmians, whereas Section 4 constructs a new space of all images of Boehmians from Section 3. In Section 5, we define the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform of a Boehmian and study some of its general properties.

#### 2. Optical Fresnel-Wavelet Transforms of Distributions

Let be the space of all test functions of arbitrary support and be its dual of distributions of bounded support, see, for example [12, 18–20]. Then, is a complete multinormed space with the set of norms as follows: where run through compact subsets of and . It is clear that the kernel function of the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform for each , is an element of . This describes the distributional optical Fresnel-wavelet transform of bounded support as an adjoint operator as follows: For convenience we sometimes write instead of . Moreover, from (2.3), we observe that is an analytic function satisfying the expression as follows:

Further, is well defined since has its usual meaning where denoted by to be the usual convolution product [18, 20, 21]. Then we have the following lemma.

Lemma 2.1. *Let and , be their respective optical Fresnel-wavelet transforms and for all and , then
*

where .

*Proof. *Let , and , and then
Hence, using properties of distributions and simple calculations we get
*The above theorem is known as the convolution theorem of the Fresnel-wavelet transform*.

Let be the dirac delta function. Then the Fresnel-wavelet transform of is described as follows:

Now can easily deduce a corollary for the Lemma 2.1 as follows.

Corollary 2.2. *Let and be the dirac delta function, and then
*

*Proof. *It is a straightforward result of Lemma 2.1.

Theorem 2.3. *The distributional optical Fresnel-wavelet transform is linear.*

*Proof. *It is obvious.

Lemma 2.4. *Let , , and then one has *(1)(2)*.
*

*Proof. *It is a straightforward conclusion of the fact [20]. Consider

#### 3. The Boehmian Space

In this section, we assume that the reader is acquainted with the general construction of Boehmian spaces [6, 22–27]. Let be the Schwartz space of test functions of bounded support see [12, 20, 28]. The operation between a distribution and a test function is defined by where and

A sequence of functions in is said to be a delta sequence if it satisfies Conditions (3.3)–(3.5). Consider

The set of all such sequences is denoted by . To see the extension to certain integral transform, see [29–31].

Lemma 3.1. *Given and then
**
for each .*

*Proof. *We prove the lemma by induction on . Let and with , and then
Hence (3.7) reduces to

Next, assume that the lemma satisfies for th derivatives, then certainly we get by (3.7). Hence the lemmais as follows.

Lemma 3.2. *Let and , and then .*

*Proof. *Let be a compact subset of . Then using Lemma 3.1 we get

The inequality (3.10) can be explicitly expressed as
where is the norm in the topology equipped with . Hence, the lemma follows from (3.11). This completes the proof.

Lemma 3.3. *Let and , and then .*

* Proof. *In view of Lemma 3.2 we get

Therefore, the righthand side of (3.1) is meaningful. To show that we are requested to show that is continuous and linear. To establish continuity, let in , then from (3.11) we get

Hence we have as . Linearity condition is obvious. Hence the lemma is completely proved.

Lemma 3.4. * Let and be given, and then
*

*Proof. *It is a straightforward consequence of definitions and change of variables.

Lemma 3.5. *Let and , and then
*

*Proof. *Using (3.1) and Lemma 3.4. we get
Hence the lemma is as follows.

Lemma 3.6. *Let and , and then one has *(1)(2)*.
*

*Proof. *It is a straightforward result of definitions.

Lemma 3.7. *Let in and be given then
**
as .*

*Proof. *By virtue of Lemma 3.2, . Hence, using (3.1) we get

Allowing completes the proof of the lemma.

Lemma 3.8. *Let and , and then .*

*Proof. *Considering a compact subset of and a sequence such that for each , we show that as in the sense of . By Lemma 3.1 we have
and by applying (3.4) we get

Then the mean value theorem implies that
for some . Let then considering supremum over all with the fact that yields

Now allowing in (3.23) yields . Hence we have established that

On using (3.24) can be observed as

This implies that as . The proof is therefore completed.

Finally, by virtue of the above sequence of results (Lemma 3.1–3.8), our desired Boehmian space is well defined.

#### 4. The Boehmian Space

In this section we construct the space of all Fresnel-wavelet transforms of Boehmians from the space as follows.

Let be the space of all analytic functions which are Fresnel-wavelet transforms of distributions in . Then, we define convergence as follows. We say in if and only if there are such that in , where and . Let and be given, and then define

Theorem 4.1. *Let and , and then , where .*

*Proof. *By the aid of (2.3) we write

By using (3.1) we get

That is . Employing (4.1) yields , where . This proves the theorem.

Lemma 4.2. *Let and , and then .*

* Proof. *Let be such that , and that then Theorem 4.1 implies

Thus by Lemma 3.3. Hence the lemma.

Lemma 4.3. *Let and , and then .*

*Proof. *Theorem 4.1 implies that . This completes the proof of the lemma.

Lemma 4.4. *Let and , then *(1)*,
*(2)*.
*

*Proof. *It is obvious.

Lemma 4.5. *
(i) Let as and , and then as in .**
(ii) Let as and , and then as in .*

*Proof. *
(i) Let then and for some . Hence, using Theorem 4.1, we have

By Lemma 3.7 we get

Once again Theorem 4.1 implies that
Thus we ahve

This proves part (i) of the Lemma.

(ii) can be proved similarly by using Lemma 3.8 and Theorem 4.1. The space is therefore established.

The sum of two Boehmians and multiplication by a scalar in is defined in a natural way as follows:

The operation and the differentiation are defined by

#### 5. Optical Fresnel-Wavelet Transforms of Boehmians

In view of the analysis obtained in Sections 4 and 5 and Theorem 4.1 we are led to state the following definition.

*Definition 5.1. *Let , and then
for each , where .

Lemma 5.2. *The optical Fresnel-wavelet transform is well defined.*

*Proof. *It is a straightforward.

Lemma 5.3. *The optical Fresnel-wavelet transform is linear. *

* Proof. *It is straightforward by using Definition 5.1.

Lemma 5.4. *The optical Fresnel-wavelet transform is an isomorphism. *

* Proof. *Assume that , and then using (5.1) and the concept of quotients we get , where and . Therefore, Theorem 4.1 implies that . Properties of imply that . Therefore, . To establish is surjective, and let . Then for every . Hence are such that and . Theorem 4.1 implies that . Hence is such that . This completes the proof of the lemma.

Now, Let , and then we define the inverse optical Fresnel-wavelet transform of as where .

Lemma 5.5. *Let , , and then
*

*Proof. *Applying Definition 5.1 yields

Using Lemma 4.3 we obtain

This completes the proof of the Lemma.

Theorem 5.6. * and are continuous with respect to and convergences.*

*Proof. *First of all, we show that and are continuous with respect to convergence.

Let in as , and then we show that as . By virtue of [25] we can find and in such that

such that as for every . Employing the continuity condition of the optical Fresnel-wavelet transform implies that as in the space . Thus, as in .

To prove the second part, let in as . Then, once again, by [4], and for some and as . Hence in as . Or, as . Using Definition 5.1 we get as .

Now, we establish continuity of and with respect to convergence. Let in as . Then, there exist and such that and as . Employing Definition 5.1 we get

Hence, from Lemma 4.2 we have as in . Therefore consider

Hence, as . Finally, let in as , and then we find such that and as for some and . Now, using Definition 5.1, we obtain that

Lemma 5.5 implies that

Thus we have

From this we find that as in . This completes the proof of the theorem.

#### Acknowledgment

The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and gratitude to the reviewer(s) for their valuable comments and suggestions for the improvement of this paper.

#### References

- P. K. Banerji, S. K. Al-Omari, and L. Debnath, “Tempered distributional Fourier sine (cosine) transform,”
*Integral Transforms and Special Functions*, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 759–768, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J. W. Goodman,
*Introductionto Fourier Optics*, Mc Graw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1972. - H.-Y. Fan and H. L. Lu, “Wave-function transformations by general SU(1, 1) single-mode squeezing and analogy to Fresnel transformations in wave optics,”
*Optics Communications*, vol. 258, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H.-Y. Fan and L. Y. Hu, “Optical Fresnel transformation and quantum tomography,”
*Optics Communications*, vol. 282, no. 18, pp. 3734–3736, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Kogelink, “On the propagation of Gaussian beams of light through Lenslike media
including those with a loss or gain variation,”
*Applied Optics*, vol. 4, pp. 121562–121569, 1965. - A. W. Lohmann, “Image rotation, Wigner rotation, and the fractional Fourier transform,”
*Journal of the Optical Society of America A*, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 2181–2186, 1993. View at Scopus - A. C. McBride and F. H. Kerr, “On Namias's fractional Fourier transforms,”
*IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics*, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 159–175, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - P. Mikusiński, “Fourier transform for integrable Boehmians,”
*The Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 577–582, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - H. Ozaktas and D. Mendlovic, “Fractional Fourier transforms and their optical implementation. II,”
*Journal of the Optical Society of America A*, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 2522–2531, 1993. View at Scopus - M. Moshinsky and C. Quesne, “Linear canonical transformations and their unitary representations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 12, 9 pages, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. K. Q. Al-Omari and A. Kılıçman, “On diffraction Fresnel transforms for Boehmians,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2011, Article ID 712746, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Holschneider,
*Wavelets, an Analysis Tool*, Oxford Mathematical Monographs, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1995. - M. Holschneider, “Wavelet analysis on the circle,”
*Journal of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - A. Kılıçman, “On the Fresnel sine integral and the convolution,”
*International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences*, no. 37, pp. 2327–2333, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. Kılıçman and B. Fisher, “On the Fresnel integrals and the convolution,”
*International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences*, no. 41, pp. 2635–2643, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - L. M. Bernardo and O. D. Soaares, “Fractional Fourier transform and optical systems,”
*Optics Communications*, vol. 110, pp. 517–522, 1994. - L. Mertz,
*Transformations in Optics*, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1965. - A. Kılıçman, “A comparison on the commutative neutrix convolution of distributions and the exchange formula,”
*Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal*, vol. 51(126), no. 3, pp. 463–471, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - A. Kılıçman, “On the commutative neutrix product of distributions,”
*Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 753–762, 1999. View at Zentralblatt MATH - R. Roopkumar, “Mellin transform for Boehmians,”
*Bulletin of the Institute of Mathematics. Academia Sinica*, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 75–96, 2009. View at Zentralblatt MATH - H. Eltayeb, A. Kılıçman, and B. Fisher, “A new integral transform and associated distributions,”
*Integral Transforms and Special Functions*, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 367–379, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. K. Q. Al-Omari, D. Loonker, P. K. Banerji, and S. L. Kalla, “Fourier sine (cosine) transform for ultradistributions and their extensions to tempered and ultraBoehmian spaces,”
*Integral Transforms and Special Functions*, vol. 19, no. 5-6, pp. 453–462, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - T. K. Boehme, “The support of Mikusiński operators,”
*Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 176, pp. 319–334, 1973. View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. Mendlovic and H. M. Ozaktas, “Fractional Fourier transforms and their optical implementation: I,”
*Journal of the Optical Society of America A*, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1875–1881, 1993. View at Scopus - P. Mikusiński, “Tempered Boehmians and ultradistributions,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 813–817, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - V. Namias, “The fractional order Fourier transform and its application to quantum mechanics,”
*Journal of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications*, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 241–265, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - R. S. Pathak,
*Integral Transforms of Generalized Functions and Their Applications*, Gordon and Breach Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997. - B. Fisher and A. Kılıçman, “A commutative neutrix product of ultradistributions,”
*Integral Transforms and Special Functions*, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 77–82, 1996. View at Scopus - S. Al-Omari, “The generalized stieltjes and Fourier transforms of certain spaces of generalized functions,”
*The Jordanian Journal of Mathematics and Statistics*, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 55–66, 2009. - S. K. Q. Al-Omari, “On the distributional Mellin transformation and its extension to Boehmian spaces,”
*International Journal of Contemporary Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 6, no. 17-20, pp. 801–810, 2011. - S. K. Q. Al-Omari, “A Mellin transform for a space of Lebesgue integrable Boehmians,”
*International Journal of Contemporary Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 6, no. 29-32, pp. 1597–1606, 2011.