Journal of Fuels The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. DoE Method for Operating Parameter Optimization of a Dual-Fuel BioEthanol/Diesel Light Duty Engine Wed, 21 Jan 2015 07:54:29 +0000 In recent years, alcoholic fuels have been considered as an alternative transportation biofuel even in compression ignition engines either as blended in diesel or as premixed fuel in the case of dual-fuel configuration. Within this framework, the authors investigated the possibility to improve the combustion efficiency when ethanol is used in a dual-fuel light duty diesel engine. In particular, the study was focused on reducing the HC and CO emissions at low load conditions, acting on the most influential engine calibration parameters. Since this kind of investigation would require a significant number of runs, the statistical design of experiment methodology was adopted to reduce significantly its number. As required by the DoE approach, a set of factors (injection parameters, etc.) were selected. For each of them, two levels “high” and “low” were defined in a range of reasonable values. Combining the levels of all the factors, it was possible to evaluate the effects and the weight of each factor and of their combination on the outputs. The results identified the rail pressure, the pilot, and post-injection as the most influential emission parameters. Significant reductions of unburnt were found acting on those parameters without substantial penalties on the global engine performances. Gabriele Di Blasio, Mauro Viscardi, and Carlo Beatrice Copyright © 2015 Gabriele Di Blasio et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Studies of New Water Removal Element in Purification Applications of Diesel Fuels Sun, 21 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 To effectively and efficiently remove water contamination dispersed in petrodiesel fuels, a new water removal element with both coalescence and separation features is studied in this paper. The unique droplet coalescence and separation mechanism occurring in the new water removal element is proposed. The conceptual design of this filter element is presented and the basic features of FCP filtration systems are briefly introduced. A laboratory test stand and fuel analysis procedure are described. The results from preliminary water removal tests with number 2 petrodiesel fuel demonstrate the filtration performance of the new water removal element. For example, within one single fuel flow pass through FCP filtration system equipped with the new water removal element and running at 2 GPM flow rate, the water content in 80°F, number 2 petrodiesel fuel stream can be reduced from up to 40,000 ppm upstream to 64.8 ppm or less downstream. Ruijun Chen Copyright © 2014 Ruijun Chen. All rights reserved. Catalytic Autoxidation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Jatropha Oil Thu, 16 Oct 2014 08:37:30 +0000 Metal catalysts for transesterification of vegetable oils can cause autoxidation side reactions which reduces the fuel quality of the biodiesel. On the other side, oxidation of highly unsaturated oils can open opportunities for the synthesis of other important renewable chemical products. This study reports catalytic oxidation of fatty acids of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) by Li-CaO/Fe2(SO4)3 catalyst during transesterification at mild reaction conditions. The catalytic oxidation of the triglycerides was shown to be enhanced by the presence of lithium incorporated in the otherwise active catalyst combination of CaO/Fe2(SO4)3 used for high conversion into FAME. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to assess the reaction products. Abebe K. Endalew and Yohannes Kiros Copyright © 2014 Abebe K. Endalew and Yohannes Kiros. All rights reserved. Application of the Fuel-Optimal Energy Management in Design Study of a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tue, 07 Oct 2014 07:32:13 +0000 In spite of occasional criticism they have attracted, hybrid vehicles (HVs) have been warmly welcomed by industry and academia alike. The key advantages of an HV, including fuel economy and environment friendliness, however, depend greatly on its energy management strategy and the way its design parameters are “tuned.” The optimal design and sizing of the HV remain a challenge for the engineering community, due to the variety of criteria and especially dynamic measures related to nature of its working conditions. This paper proposes an optimal design scheme that begins with presenting an energy management strategy based on minimum fuel consumption in finite driving cycle horizon. The strategy utilizes a dynamic programming approach and is consistent with charge sustenance. The sensitivity of the vehicle’s performance metrics to multiple design parameters is then studied using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. The proposed scheme provides the designer with a reliable tool for investigating various design scenarios and achieving the optimal one. Afshin Pedram Pourhashemi, S. M. Mehdi Ansarey Movahed, and Masoud Shariat Panahi Copyright © 2014 Afshin Pedram Pourhashemi et al. All rights reserved. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel Thu, 25 Sep 2014 09:58:19 +0000 The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO) was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME) was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production. Foluso O. Agunbiade and Tolulope A. Adewole Copyright © 2014 Foluso O. Agunbiade and Tolulope A. Adewole. All rights reserved. Hura crepitans Seed Oil: An Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:54:24 +0000 Oil was extracted from the seed of Hura crepitans using hexane in a soxhlet extractor and analyzed for iodine value, saponification value and free fatty acid content. The dominant fatty acid in the oil was C18:2 (%) while the iodine value was  g iodine/100 g. Biodiesel was produced from the oil using a two-step reaction system involving a first step of pretreatment via esterification reaction and a second step via transesterification reaction. The pretreatment step showed that free fatty acid in Hura crepitans seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification using H2SO4 as catalyst. The biodiesel produced from Hura crepitans seed oil had an acid value of  mg KOH/g, flash point of 152 ± 1.10°C, copper strip corrosion value of 1A, calorific value of  mJ/kg, cetane number of , and density of  g cm−3. The process gave a biodiesel yield of % with properties within the recommended values of EN 14214. Adewale Adewuyi, Paul O. Awolade, and Rotimi Ayodele Oderinde Copyright © 2014 Adewale Adewuyi et al. All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of a Small-Scale Turbojet Engine Running on Palm Oil Biodiesel Blends Tue, 08 Jul 2014 08:16:36 +0000 The experimental and simulated performance of an Armfield CM4 turbojet engine was investigated for palm oil methyl ester biodiesel (PME) and its blends with conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The volumetric blends of PME with Jet A-1 are 20, 50, 70, and 100% (B20, B50, B70, and B100). Fuel heating values (FHV) of each fuel mixture were obtained by calorimetric analysis. The experimental tests included performance tests for Jet A-1 and B20, while the performances of B50 to B100 were simulated using GasTurb 11 analytical software. In terms of maximum measured thrust, Jet A-1 yielded the highest value of 216 N, decreasing by 0.77%, 4%, 8%, and 12% with B20, B50, B70, and B100. It was found that B20 produced comparable results compared to the benchmark Jet A-1 tests, particularly with thrust and thermal efficiency. Slight performance penalties occurred due to the lower energy content of the biodiesel blends. The efficiency of the combustor improved with the addition of biodiesel while the other component efficiencies remained collectively consistent. This research shows that, at least for larger gas turbines, PME is suitable for use as an additive to Jet A-1 within 50% blends. A. R. Abu Talib, E. Gires, and M. T. Ahmad Copyright © 2014 A. R. Abu Talib et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Preparation Methods on Catalytic Activity and Selectivity of Ru-Mo/HZSM5 for Methane Dehydroaromatization Wed, 02 Jul 2014 06:36:59 +0000 Catalytic performance of Mo/HZSM5 and Ru-Mo/HZSM5 catalysts prepared by vaporization-deposition of molybdenum trioxide and impregnation with ammonium heptamolybdate was analyzed in terms of catalyst activity and selectivity, nitrogen physisorption analyses, temperature-programmed oxidation of carbonaceous residues, and temperature-programmed reduction. Vaporization-deposition rendered the catalyst more selective to ethylene and coke than the catalyst prepared by impregnation. This result was assigned to lower interaction of molybdenum carbide with the zeolite acidic sites. Lucia M. Petkovic and Daniel M. Ginosar Copyright © 2014 Lucia M. Petkovic and Daniel M. Ginosar. All rights reserved. Multivariable Regression and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System Predictions of Ash Fusion Temperatures Using Ash Chemical Composition of US Coals Thu, 22 May 2014 05:45:54 +0000 In this study, the effects of ratios of dolomite, base/acid, silica, SiO2/Al2O3, and Fe2O3/CaO, base and acid oxides, and 11 oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, TiO2, P2O5, and SO3) on ash fusion temperatures for 1040 US coal samples from 12 states were evaluated using regression and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods. Different combinations of independent variables were examined to predict ash fusion temperatures in the multivariable procedure. The combination of the “11 oxides + (Base/Acid) + Silica ratio” was the best predictor. Correlation coefficients () of 0.891, 0.917, and 0.94 were achieved using nonlinear equations for the prediction of initial deformation temperature (IDT), softening temperature (ST), and fluid temperature (FT), respectively. The mentioned “best predictor” was used as input to the ANFIS system as well, and the correlation coefficients () of the prediction were enhanced to 0.97, 0.98, and 0.99 for IDT, ST, and FT, respectively. The prediction precision that was achieved in this work exceeded that reported in previously published works. Shahab Karimi, Esmaeil Jorjani, Saeed Chehreh Chelgani, and Shahin Mesroghli Copyright © 2014 Shahab Karimi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis Wed, 19 Mar 2014 13:29:49 +0000 The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. The nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively. Abhijit Bhagavatula, Gerald Huffman, Naresh Shah, and Rick Honaker Copyright © 2014 Abhijit Bhagavatula et al. All rights reserved. Separate Determination of Borohydride, Borate, Hydroxide, and Carbonate in the Borohydride Fuel Cell by Acid-Base and Iodometric Potentiometric Titration Wed, 29 Jan 2014 09:11:15 +0000 A methodology for quantitative chemical analysis of the complex “borohydride-borate-hydroxide-carbonate-water” mixtures used as fuel in the borohydride fuel cell was developed and optimized. The methodology includes the combined usage of the acid-base and iodometric titration methods. The acid-base titration method, which simultaneously uses the technique of differentiation and computer simulation of titration curves, allows one to determine the contents of hydroxide (alkali), carbonate, and total “borate + borohydride” content. The iodometric titration method allows one to selectively determine borohydride, so the content of each of , , , and anions in the fuel becomes estimated. The average determination error depends on the number and ratio of compounds in a mixture. Specific details of the analysis of various fuel mixtures are discussed. A. V. Churikov, S. L. Shmakov, V. O. Romanova, K. V. Zapsis, A. V. Ushakov, A. V. Ivanishchev, and M. A. Churikov Copyright © 2014 A. V. Churikov et al. All rights reserved. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10) with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR), and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR), and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin). These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the ethanol blended gasoline mixtures were used: (a) gasoline containing 5% ethanol (E5), which is commercial form of gasoline available in India, and (b) gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10). The above materials were immersed in E5 and E10 for 500 hrs at 55°C. A set of eight different properties in E5 and E10 (visual inspection, weight change, volume change, tensile strength, percent elongation, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness) were measured after completion of 500 hrs and compared with reference specimens (specimens at 55°C without fuel and specimens at ambient conditions). Variation observed in different materials with respect to the above eight properties has been used to draw inference about the compatibility of these elastomeric/polymer materials with E10 fuel vis-à-vis E5 fuels. The data presented in this study is comparative in nature between the results of E10 and E5. J. S. Dhaliwal, M. S. Negi, G. S. Kapur, and Shashi Kant Copyright © 2014 J. S. Dhaliwal et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Selected Metal Contaminants on the Stability of Castor Oil Methyl Ester Tue, 28 Jan 2014 07:28:48 +0000 This study investigates the effect of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) contaminants on the stability of castor oil methyl ester (COME). COME was synthesized via transesterification reaction and the peroxide value of the COME was used to monitor its stability. Varied amounts of Fe and Al (0.2 g, 0.4 g, 0.6 g, 0.8 g, and 1.0 g) in powdered form were added to 100 mL of COME and their effect on the peroxide value was monitored for a day, for the first phase of the experiment, while for the second phase, 0.3 g and 0.8 g of these metals were added to 100 mL COME, and their effect was monitored for 9 days. At the end of the study, it was observed that as the amount of the metals added to the COME increases from 0.2 to 1.0 g/100 mL COME, the peroxide values of the COME decrease from 1.6 to 0.3 meq/kg and 1.2 to 0.3–0.2 meq/kg for Al and Fe contaminated COME after 24 h. Also in the second phase of the experiment, the peroxide value of the 0.3 g Fe metal contaminated COME increased from 1.4 to 11.6 meq/kg while that of 0.8 g Fe contaminated COME increased from 1.4 to 3.0 meq/kg after the nine-day period of investigation. Christopher E. Akhabue, John C. Iworah, and Felix A. Aisien Copyright © 2014 Christopher E. Akhabue et al. All rights reserved. Density, Viscosity and Water Phase Stability of 1-Butanol-Gasoline Blends Mon, 27 Jan 2014 07:45:23 +0000 The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. Density and viscosity of 1-butanol are higher than that for gasoline and they can affect these parameters in the final gasoline blend. Density increases linearly and viscosity exponentially with the content of 1-butanol. Water solubility in 1-butanol-gasoline blend was determined as the temperature of a phase separation. The water was separated in the solid form at negative temperature and the phase separation point was determined as the temperature of crystallization. Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. Ethers are slightly miscible with water and they improve the phase stability. While ethanol is completely miscible water and increases the water solubility in the blends. Finally, water extractions of both alcohols from gasoline were done. In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase. Zlata Mužíková, Pavel Šimáček, Milan Pospíšil, and Gustav Šebor Copyright © 2014 Zlata Mužíková et al. All rights reserved. Propane Fuel Cells: Selectivity for Partial or Complete Reaction Mon, 20 Jan 2014 12:35:58 +0000 The use of propane fuel in high temperature (120°C) polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells that do not require a platinum group metal catalyst is being investigated in our laboratory. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine propane adsorption energies, desorption energies, and transition state energies for both dehydrogenation and hydroxylation reactions on a Ni(100) anode catalyst surface. The Boltzmann factor for the hydroxylation of a propyl species to form propanol and its subsequent desorption was compared to that for the dehydrogenation of a propyl species. The large ratio of the respective Boltzmann factors indicated that the formation of a completely reacted product (carbon dioxide) is much more likely than the formation of partially reacted products (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and carbon monoxide). That finding is evidence for the major proportion of the chemical energy of the propane fuel being converted to either electrical or thermal energy in the fuel cell rather than remaining unused when partially reacted species are formed. Shadi Vafaeyan, Alain St-Amant, and Marten Ternan Copyright © 2014 Shadi Vafaeyan et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Process Parameters by Taguchi Orthogonal Array Design for Improved Bioethanol Production Tue, 14 Jan 2014 09:42:27 +0000 The statistical optimization of different fermentation process parameters in SSF of mixed MAA and organosolv pretreated 1% (w v−1) wild grass, namely, recombinant Clostridium thermocellum hydrolytic enzymes’ volume (GH5 cellulase, GH43 hemicellulase), fermentative microbes’ inoculum volume (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehatae), pH, and temperature, was accomplished by Taguchi orthogonal array design. The optimized parameters in 100 mL of fermentation medium were (%, v v−1) as follows: 1.0, recombinant GH5 cellulase (5.7 mg−1, 0.45 mg mL−1); 2.0, recombinant GH43 hemicellulase (3.7 U mg−1, 0.32 mg mL−1); 1.5, S. cerevisiae (3.9 × 108 cells mL−1); 0.25, C. shehatae (2.7 × 107 cells mL−1); pH, 4.3; and temperature, 35∘C. pH with p-value 0.001 was found to be the most significant factor affecting SSF. The ethanol titre obtained in Taguchi optimized shake flask SSF was 2.0 g L−1 implying a 1.3-fold increase as compared to ethanol titre of 1.5 g L−1 in unoptimized shake flask SSF. A 1.5-fold gain in ethanol titre (3.1 g L−1) was obtained with the same substrate concentration in lab scale bioreactor on scaling up the shake flask SSF with Taguchi optimized process parameters. Saprativ P. Das, Debasish Das, and Arun Goyal Copyright © 2014 Saprativ P. Das et al. All rights reserved. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20  Plastic Bags Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:39:53 +0000 A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP) bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm) under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem. Neeraj Mishra, Sunil Pandey, Bhushan Patil, Mukeshchand Thukur, Ashmi Mewada, Madhuri Sharon, and Maheshwar Sharon Copyright © 2014 Neeraj Mishra et al. All rights reserved. Potential of NMR Spectroscopy in the Characterization of Nonconventional Oils Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:23:44 +0000 NMR spectroscopy was applied for the characterization of two biomass based pyrolysis oil samples. The samples were extracted in various solvents and the extracts were investigated by both 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent evaluation of the integrated analytical data revealed chemical information regarding semiquantitative estimation of various functional groups. This information could not have been obtained readily from the individual spectroscopic techniques. Semiquantitative estimation of the various functional groups allowed a comparison of the extraction efficiency of these groups in various solvents. The method is based on the premise that although the number of individual molecular species in pyrolysis oil liquid is large, most of these species are composed of a limited number of functional groups. The methodology provided information on the concentration of chemical functionalities that are potentially useful for synthetic modifications and may help to guide the use of pyrolysis oil as a chemical feedstock. The approach described is expected to be generally applicable to complex mixture of hydrocarbon oils such as bio-oils, oil sands bitumen, and coal pyrolysis oils. Abdul Majid and Indu Pihillagawa Copyright © 2014 Abdul Majid and Indu Pihillagawa. All rights reserved. Effect of Coexistent Hydrogen on the Selective Production of Ethane by Dehydrogenative Methane Coupling through Dielectric-Barrier Discharge under Ordinary Pressure at an Ambient Temperature Wed, 01 Jan 2014 21:07:45 +0000 The effect of coexistence of hydrogen on the product selectivity to ethane from methane by dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was examined experimentally under ordinary pressure without use of catalyst and external heating. By the dilution of methane with hydrogen, both the increase of methane conversion and the decrease of alkene production were observed, improving the selectivities to ethane by ca. 70%. Katsuya Konno, Kaoru Onoe, Yasuyuki Takiguchi, and Tatsuaki Yamaguchi Copyright © 2014 Katsuya Konno et al. All rights reserved.