Journal of Hormones http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:53:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/190347/ This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies. Victoria Zarotsky, Ming-Yi Huang, Wendy Carman, Abraham Morgentaler, Puneet K. Singhal, Donna Coffin, and T. Hugh Jones Copyright © 2014 Victoria Zarotsky et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Cutaneous Wound Healing of Ovariectomized Mouse at 12 Weeks with That of SHAM and Estrogen-Administered Mice Mon, 07 Jul 2014 09:49:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/484258/ The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of 17-estradiol on cutaneous wound healing in 12-week ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. Eight-week-old female mice were divided into three groups: administration of 17-estradiol after OVX (OVX + 17-estradiol), OVX, and sham (SHAM). Four weeks after surgery, the mice received two full-thickness cutaneous wounds. 17-Estradiol at 0.01 g/day was administered on the backs of mice in the OVX + 17-estradiol group every day. Plasma 17-estradiol level in the OVX + 17-estradiol group was thus significantly higher than in the SHAM and OVX groups, but there was no significant difference between SHAM and OVX groups. The ratio of wound area was not significantly different among the three groups. However, the period required to reach a ratio of wound area of 0.15 in the OVX + 17-estradiol group was significantly shorter than in the SHAM and OVX groups. These results indicate that cutaneous wound healing in young OVX mice was promoted by the administration of 17-estradiol compared with that in SHAM and OVX mice without such administration, but there was no difference between the latter two groups that did not differ in 17-estradiol level. Kanae Mukai, Yuriko Miyasaka, Kana Takata, Tamae Urai, Yukari Nakajima, Emi Komatsu, Junko Sugama, and Toshio Nakatani Copyright © 2014 Kanae Mukai et al. All rights reserved. Utility of Intraoperative Parathormone Assay as an Index to Successful Parathyroidectomy Mon, 19 May 2014 06:43:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/750401/ Introduction. Surgery is the definitive treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Focused approaches for excision of single gland pathology are gaining popularity. Preoperative parathyroid localization and intraoperative parathormone (IOPTH) assay are essential components of successful parathyroidectomy using focused approach. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of IOPTH in patients undergoing surgery for PHP. Methods. Retrospective review of twelve patients who underwent surgery for PHP at tertiary corporate hospital in Mumbai, India, between January 2009 and December 2012. Results. IOPTH had true results in 10 patients (83%) and led to unnecessary further exploration in 1 patient (8%). The concordance rate between ultrasonogram, sestamibi, and IOPTH was 66%. The mean decay of IOPTH was 65%, and all patients were normocalcemic at the end of six months. Conclusion. IOPTH is a useful adjunct to predict successful removal of the involved gland. Ranjeetha Shenoy, Arun Behl, and Tushar Pawar Copyright © 2014 Ranjeetha Shenoy et al. All rights reserved. Improvements in Chronic Primary Insomnia after Exercise Training Are Correlated with Changes in Metabolic and Hormonal Profile Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:13:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/246342/ Objective. The objective of this study was to correlate metabolic and hormonal parameters before and after 8, 16, and 24 weeks (wk) of moderate aerobic training in individuals with chronic primary insomnia. Method. Four male and sixteen female volunteers (adults, sedentary, and healthy) performed exercise training for 24 weeks. Blood and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was obtained at baseline, 8, 16, and 24 wk of training. Results. PSQI scores decreased after 8, 16, and 24 wk of training regarding baseline values. Indeed, total sleep time (TST) increased after 16 and 24 wk of exercise training regarding baseline values. The correlations were analyzed using the delta () values ( wk less baseline;  wk less baseline;  wk less baseline). We have observed a negative correlation for between TST and cortisol, a positive correlation for between TST and growth hormone, a negative correlation for between TST and VLDL, a negative correlation for between TST and triacylglycerols, and a negative correlation for and between TST and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Conclusion. The exercise training improved the sleep quality of patients with chronic primary insomnia. Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Giselle Soares Passos, Francieli Silva Ruiz, Eduardo da Silva Alves, Dalva Poyares, Marcos Gonçalves de Santana, Sergio Tufik, and Marco Túlio de Mello Copyright © 2014 Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of 17β-Estradiol Administration on Cutaneous Wound Healing in 24-Week Ovariectomized Female Mice Tue, 21 Jan 2014 07:56:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/234632/ Estrogen replacement promotes cutaneous wound healing in 8–10-week young ovariectomized female mice. However, research using aged ovariectomized female mice has not been reported, to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on cutaneous wound healing using 24-week middle-aged ovariectomized female mice. Twenty-week-old female mice were divided into three groups: medication with 17β-estradiol after ovariectomy (OVX + 17β-estradiol), ovariectomy (OVX), and sham (SHAM). After 4 weeks, the mice received two full-thickness wounds. Then, the OVX + 17β-estradiol group was administered 17β-estradiol at 0.01 g/day until healing. The ratio of wound area in the OVX + 17β-estradiol group was significantly decreased compared with that in the OVX group. The numbers of neutrophils and macrophages in the OVX + 17β-estradiol group were significantly smaller than those in the OVX group. In addition, the ratio of myofibroblasts in the OVX + 17β-estradiol group was significantly higher than that in the OVX group. These data suggested that exogenous continuous 17β-estradiol administration promotes cutaneous wound healing in 24-week OVX female mice by reducing wound area, shortening inflammatory response, and promoting wound contraction. However, it is unclear whether the effect of exogenous estrogen on wound healing outweighs the delay of wound healing due to advanced age. Kanae Mukai, Yukari Nakajima, Tamae Urai, Emi Komatsu, Kana Takata, Yuriko Miyasaka, Nasruddin, Junko Sugama, and Toshio Nakatani Copyright © 2014 Kanae Mukai et al. All rights reserved. Autonomic Cardiovascular Control in Hyperthyroid Women during Sleep Thu, 12 Dec 2013 08:32:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2013/813264/ Hyperthyroidism is characterized by hyperadrenergic symptoms (i.e., tachycardia, anxiety, and increased metabolic state). Although hyperthyroid patients often complain about an impairment of sleep, no data are available on sleep characteristics and autonomic cardiovascular control during sleep in these patients. We aimed to assess sleep qualitative indices and autonomic cardiovascular regulation during sleep in hyperthyroidism (Hyperthyr) and after treatment. Six subjects with a first diagnosis of Graves’ disease or hyperfunctioning nodule underwent a complete polysomnographic study (PSG) at the time of diagnosis and after the treatment, when they became euthyroid (Euthyr). ECG and respiratory signals were extracted and samples of consecutive 250–300 beats were analyzed using linear spectral and nonlinear entropy analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), during the different sleep stages. Heart rate was decreased and total power increased in Euthyr compared to Hyperthyr, both during wake and sleep; no changes of the sympathovagal balance were observed. Entropy analysis showed that regularity index was reduced in Euthyr compared to Hyperthyr, suggesting changes in the complexity of the cardiovascular control. Periodic leg movements (PLM) were reduced in Euthyr compared to Hyperthyr. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism seems to be associated with an increased sleep fragmentation, due to PLM and an altered cardiac autonomic control. Eleonora Tobaldini, Marica Pecis, Mara Bulgheroni, Milena Muratori, Maurizio Bevilacqua, and Nicola Montano Copyright © 2013 Eleonora Tobaldini et al. All rights reserved. Salivary Melatonin Concentrations in a Sitting and a Standing Position Tue, 24 Sep 2013 16:05:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2013/236325/ This study aimed to examine differences in salivary melatonin concentrations between the sitting and standing positions. Ten subjects (age range: 20–22 years; 5 males and 5 females) participated in the study and provided written consent. In the sitting condition, the subjects sat on a chair from 23:30 h to 1:00 h, whereas in the standing condition, the subjects sat on a chair from 23:30 h to 0:30 h and stood on the floor from 0:30 h to 1:00 h. Saliva samples were obtained at 0:25 h and 1:00 h from all subjects. The experiment was performed under a dim light condition (<10 lx). No significant differences were observed in melatonin concentrations between the two positions at 0:25 h; however, melatonin concentrations in the standing condition were significantly greater than those in the sitting condition at 1:00 h. These results show that melatonin secretion is significantly greater in the standing position than that in the sitting position. Tomoaki Kozaki, Toshihiko Arata, and Ayaka Kubokawa Copyright © 2013 Tomoaki Kozaki et al. All rights reserved. Estradiol Solubility in Aqueous Systems: Effect of Ionic Concentrations, pH, and Organic Solvents Sun, 21 Jul 2013 07:58:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2013/294534/ This study examined the effects of ionic strengths of NaCl (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 M), pH (3, 7, and 11), and organic solvents (dichloromethane, diethyl ether, and methanol) on the extraction of estradiol at concentrations of 5.0 pg/mL in human serum. Methanol extracted almost 100% of the estradiol at a 5.0 pg/mL concentration, while ether and dichloromethane extracted only 73% or 70%, respectively, of the estradiol. The methanol extracted material was subjected to reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 60% methanol and was found to elute at the same position as estradiol standard. These results suggest that methanol extraction of estradiol may prove useful in situations where estradiol occurs at concentration levels of ≥5.0 pg/mL, concentrations of great clinical significance in the detection and treatment of breast cancer. John E. A. Carter and Patrick M. Sluss Copyright © 2013 John E. A. Carter and Patrick M. Sluss. All rights reserved. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males Sun, 19 May 2013 12:18:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2013/386306/ The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed. Amanda R. Kenyon, Gail A. Alvares, Ian B. Hickie, and Adam J. Guastella Copyright © 2013 Amanda R. Kenyon et al. All rights reserved.