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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 549281, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/549281
Research Article

Novel Prophylactic Vaccine Using a Prime-Boost Method and Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan-Envelope against Tuberculosis

1Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization, Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone, Kitaku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8555, Japan
2Ikeda Laboratory, GenomIdea Inc.,1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 530-0043, Japan
3Division of Gene Therapy Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
4Department of Medical Zoology, Jichi Medical School, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan
5System Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-1114, USA

Received 8 September 2010; Revised 6 January 2011; Accepted 16 January 2011

Academic Editor: Nicholas West

Copyright © 2011 Masaji Okada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a major global threat to human health. The only tuberculosis (TB) vaccine currently available is bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although it has no efficacy in adults. Therefore, the development of a novel vaccine against TB for adults is desired. Method. A novel TB vaccine expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) delivered by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan- (HVJ)- envelope was evaluated against TB infection in mice. Bacterial load reductions and histopathological assessments were used to determine efficacy. Results. Vaccination by BCG prime with IgHSP65+murine IL-12/HVJ-envelope boost resulted in significant protective efficacy (>10, 000-fold versus BCG alone) against TB infection in the lungs of mice. In addition to bacterial loads, significant protective efficacy was demonstrated by histopathological analysis of the lungs. Furthermore, the vaccine increased the number of T cells secreting IFN-γ. Conclusion. This vaccine showed extremely significant protection against TB in a mouse model, consistent with results from a similar paper on cynomolgus monkeys. The results suggest that further development of the vaccine for eventual testing in clinical trials may be warranted.