Table 2: Main chemokines and cytokines involved in the granulomatous response.

Chemokines/cytokinesMain producersTargets/role

CXCL8 (IL-8)Alveolar macrophages. Recruitment of neutrophils.
Epithelial cells of the lung.‚ÄČ

CCL2 (MCP-1)Monocytes and alveolar macrophages.Recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells.

CCL3 (MIP-1a), CCL4 (MIP-1b) CCL5 (RANTES)Alveolar macrophages.Recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells.

CXCL9, CXCL10 (IP-10), CXCL11Bronchial epithelial cells.Recruitment of immune cells.

CCL19/CCL21Stromal cells of the lymph nodes.Recruitment and priming of IFN- -producing T cells.
Migration of DC from the lung to draining lymph nodes.

CXCL13Dendritic cells, stromal cells of the lymph nodes.Recruitment of B cells and formation of the granuloma-associated follicular structures.

IL-12/IL-23Dendritic cells, macrophages.Th1 polarisation of CD4+ T cells.

IFN- CD4+ (Th1) and CD8+ T cells, NK.Activation of macrophages.
Induction of NO synthesis and bacterial killing.

TNF- CD4+ T cells (Th1), macrophages.Proinflammatory.
Induction of chemokine production.
Activation of macrophages.
Critical for granuloma formation.

IL-1Macrophages, DCs.Proinflammatory.
Recruitment and activation of phagocytes.

IL-17LT , CD4+ T cells (Th17).Proinflammatory.
Involved in neutrophil recruitment and macrophage activation.

IL-10Tregs, B-1 cells, AAM.Anti-inflammatory.
Polarisation of macrophages towards the AAM type.

TGF- Tregs, AAM.Anti-inflammatory.