About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 167132, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/167132
Review Article

Macroprolactinemia: Diagnostic, Clinical, and Pathogenic Significance

1Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555, Japan
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

Received 12 September 2012; Revised 2 November 2012; Accepted 8 November 2012

Academic Editor: Xavier Bossuyt

Copyright © 2012 Akira Shimatsu and Naoki Hattori. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. E. Freeman, B. Kanyicska, A. Lerant, and G. Nagy, “Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, pp. 1523–1631, 2000. View at Scopus
  2. S. Shelly, M. Boaz, and H. Orbach, “Prolactin and autoimmunity,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 6-7, pp. A465–A470, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. E. Molitch, “Pathologic hyperprolactinemia,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 877–901, 1992. View at Scopus
  4. K. Berinder, I. Stackenäs, O. Akre, A. L. Hirschberg, and A. L. Hulting, “Hyperprolactinaemia in 271 women: up to three decades of clinical follow-up,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 450–455, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Hattori, T. Ishihara, K. Ikekubo, K. Moridera, M. Hino, and H. Kurahachi, “Autoantibody to human prolactin in patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1226–1229, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. B. Burch, S. Clement, M. S. Sokol, and F. Landry, “Reactive hypoglycemic coma due to insulin autoimmune syndrome: case report and literature review,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 681–685, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Sanke, M. Kondo, Y. Moriyama, K. Nanjo, K. Iwo, and K. Miyamura, “Glucagon binding autoantibodies in a patient with hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1140–1144, 1983. View at Scopus
  8. S. Sakata, S. Nakamura, and K. Miura, “Autoantibodies against thyroid hormones or iodothyronine: implications in diagnosis, thyroid function, treatment, and pathogenesis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 579–589, 1985. View at Scopus
  9. B. Cavaco, V. Leite, M. M. Loureiro et al., “Spontaneously occurring anti-PTH autoantibodies must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with elevated serum PTH levels,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 829–834, 1999. View at Scopus
  10. R. Wheatland, “Chronic ACTH autoantibodies are a significant pathological factor in the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic fatigue syndrome, anorexia nervosa and major depression,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 287–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. R. Meyer, G. Lavy, A. H. DeCherney, I. Visintin, K. Economy, and J. L. Luborsky, “Evidence of gonadal and gonadotropin antibodies in women with a suboptimal ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropin,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 795–799, 1990. View at Scopus
  12. T. J. Wilkin, L. Voss, A. Tuck, H. Bullen, and P. Betts, “Autoantibodies to endogenous growth hormone in short children (The Wessex Growth Study),” Autoimmunity, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 1992. View at Scopus
  13. J. H. Lazarus, R. John, and J. Ginsberg, “Transient neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia: a serum abnormality due to transplacentally acquired antibody to thyroid stimulating hormone,” British Medical Journal, vol. 286, no. 6365, pp. 592–594, 1983. View at Scopus
  14. S. O. Fetissov, J. Harro, M. Jaanisk et al., “Autoantibodies against neuropeptides are associated with psychological traits in eating disorders,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 41, pp. 14865–14870, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Hattori, T. Ishihara, Y. Saiki, and A. Shimatsu, “Macroprolactinaemia in patients with hyperprolactinaemia: composition of macroprolactin and stability during long-term follow-up,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 792–797, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Hattori, K. Ikekubo, T. Ishihara, K. Moridera, M. Hino, and H. Kurahachi, “A normal ovulatory woman with hyperprolactinemia: presence of anti-prolactin autoantibody and the regulation of prolactin secretion,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 497–500, 1992.
  17. N. Hattori, T. Ishihara, and Y. Saiki, “Macroprolactinaemia: prevalence and aetiologies in a large group of hospital workers,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 702–708, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Hattori and C. Inagaki, “Anti-prolactin (PRL) autoantibodies cause asymptomatic hyperprolactinemia: bioassay and clearance studies of PRL-immunoglobulin G complex,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 3107–3110, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. G. H. Vieira, T. T. Tachibana, L. H. Obara, and R. M. B. Maciel, “Extensive experience and validation of polyethylene glycol precipitation as a screening method for macroprolactinemia,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 8 I, pp. 1758–1759, 1998. View at Scopus
  20. M. N. Fahie-Wilson and S. G. Soule, “Macroprolactinaemia: contribution to hyperprolactinaemia in a district general hospital and evaluation of a screening test based on precipitation with polyethylene glycol,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 252–258, 1997. View at Scopus
  21. H. Leslie, C. H. Courtney, P. M. Bell et al., “Laboratory and clinical experience in 55 patients with macroprolactinemia identified by a simple polyethylene glycol precipitation method,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 2743–2746, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Vallette-Kasic, I. Morange-Ramos, A. Selim et al., “Macroprolactinemia revisited: a study on 106 patients,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 581–588, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Gibney, T. P. Smith, and T. J. McKenna, “The impact on clinical practice of routine screening for macroprolactin,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 3927–3932, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Cavaco, V. Leite, M. A. Santos, E. Arranhado, and L. G. Sobrinho, “Some forms of big big prolactin behave as a complex of monomeric prolactin with an immunoglobulin G in patients with macroprolactinemia or prolactinoma,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 2342–2346, 1995. View at Scopus
  25. J. De Schepper, J. Schiettecatte, B. Velkeniers et al., “Clinical and biological characterization of macroprolactinemia with and without prolactin-IgG complexes,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 201–207, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Kavanagh, T. J. McKenna, M. N. Fahie-Wilson, J. Gibney, and T. P. Smith, “Specificity and clinical utility of methods for the detection of macroprolactin,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1366–1372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Gibney, T. P. Smith, and T. J. McKenna, “Clinical relevance of macroprolactin,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 633–643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. P. Smith, A. M. Suliman, M. N. Fahie-Wilson, and T. J. McKenna, “Gross variability in the detection of prolactin in sera containing big big prolactin (macroprolactin) by commercial immunoassays,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 5410–5415, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Hattori, “The frequency of macroprolactinemia in pregnant women and the heterogeneity of its etiologies,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 586–590, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. K. Suh and A. G. Frantz, “Size heterogeneity of human prolactin in plasma and pituitary extracts,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 928–935, 1974. View at Scopus
  31. B. Akerstrom and L. Bjorck, “A physicochemical study of protein G, a molecule with unique immunoglobulin G-binding properties,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 261, no. 22, pp. 10240–10247, 1986. View at Scopus
  32. N. Hattori, Y. Nakayama, K. Kitagawa, T. Ishihara, Y. Saiki, and C. Inagaki, “Anti-prolactin (PRL) autoantibodies suppress PRL bioactivity in patients with macroprolactinaemia,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 72–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Hattori, K. Ikekubo, T. Ishihara, K. Moridera, M. Hino, and H. Kurahachi, “Correlation of the antibody titers with serum prolactin levels and their clinical course in patients with anti-prolactin autoantibody,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 438–445, 1994. View at Scopus
  34. I. R. Wallace, N. Satti, C. H. Courtney et al., “Ten-year clinical follow-up of a cohort of 51 patients with macroprolactinemia establishes it as a benign variant,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 3268–3271, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. B. Malarkey, R. Jackson, and J. Wortsman, “Long-term assessment of patients with macroprolactinemia,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 413–418, 1988. View at Scopus
  36. V. Leite, H. Cosby, L. G. Sobrinho, A. Fresnoza, M. A. Santos, and H. G. Friesen, “Characterization of big, big prolactin in patients with hyperprolactinaemia,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 365–372, 1992. View at Scopus
  37. A. Leaños-Miranda, D. Pascoe-Lira, K. A. Chávez-Rueda, and F. Blanco-Favela, “Detection of macroprolactinemia with the polyethylene glycol precipitation test in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with hyperprolactinemia,” Lupus, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 340–345, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Kavanagh-Wright, T. P. Smith, J. Gibney, and T. J. McKenna, “Characterization of macroprolactin and assessment of markers of autoimmunity in macroprolactinaemic patients,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 599–605, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Hattori, Y. Nakayama, K. Kitagawa, T. Ishihara, Y. Saiki, and C. Inagaki, “Anti-prolactin (PRL) autoantibody-binding sites (epitopes) on PRL molecule in macroprolactinemia,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 287–293, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Hattori, K. Ikekubo, Y. Nakaya, K. Kitagawa, and C. Inagaki, “Immunoglobulin G subclasses and prolactin (PRL) isoforms in macroprolactinemia due to anti-PRL autoantibodies,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 3036–3044, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Hattori, Y. Nakayama, K. Kitagawa, T. Li, and C. Inagaki, “Development of anti-PRL (prolactin) autoantibodies by homologous PRL in rats: a model for macroprolactinemia,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 2465–2470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Glezer, C. R. J. Soares, J. G. Vieira et al., “Human macroprolactin displays low biological activity via its homologous receptor in a new sensitive bioassay,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1048–1055, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Leaños-Miranda, G. Cárdenas-Mondragón, R. Rivera-Leaños, A. Ulloa-Aguirre, and V. Goffin, “Application of new homologous in vitro bioassays for human lactogens to assess the actual bioactivity of human prolactin isoforms in hyperprolactinaemic patients,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Teilum, J. C. Hoch, V. Goffin, S. Kinet, J. A. Martial, and B. B. Kragelund, “Solution structure of human prolactin,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 351, no. 4, pp. 810–823, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Marrack, J. Kappler, and B. L. Kotzin, “Autoimmune disease: why and where it occurs,” Nature Medicine, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 899–905, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Ohara, T. Hibi, N. Watanabe et al., “Immunoglobulin G subclass distribution of human anticolon antibodies in ulcerative colitis,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 158–164, 1995. View at Scopus
  47. R. Guido, S. Valenti, L. Foppiani, D. De Martini, M. Cossu, and M. Giusti, “Prolactin decrease and shift to a normal-like isoform profile during treatment with quinagolide in a patient affected by an invasive prolactinoma,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 289–293, 1997. View at Scopus