Table 1: AIRE expression (AIRE mRNA and AIRE protein) in human extra-thymic systems, organs, and tissues.

Systems, organs, tissuesAIRE expression negative or negligibly positiveAIRE expression moderately or strongly positive
TechniquesCell typesTechniquesCell types

Bone marrowNB [4]
RT-PCR [18]
IHC [18]
NB [5]

Lymph nodesIHC [18]
FC [20]
CD14 cells [20]
B lymphocytes [18]
T lymphocytes [18]
Monocytes [18]
Macrophages [18]
DCs (plasmacytoid) [18]
Epithelial cells [18]
Endothelial cells [18]
NB [4, 5]
isH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [10, 11, 18]
IF [10]
FC [20]
Neutrophilic granulocytes [11] Lymphocytes [11]
CD14+ cells [20]
DCs (myeloid-lineage) [10, 18]

SpleenNB [4]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [18]
NB [5]
isH [10]
IHC [10, 11]
Neutrophilic granulocytes [11]
Lymphocytes (red-pulp) [11]

GALTRT-PCR [18]
IHC [18]

Fetal liverNB [4, 5]
isH [10]
IHC [10]

Adult liverNB [4]
isH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
WB [12]
IHC [10, 18]

Peripheral blood leukocytesNB [4]
RT-PCR [13, 16, 19]
ICC [10, 13]
FC [20]
Neutrophilic granulocytes [13]
PBMCs [16]
CD14 cells [16]
B lymphocytes [19]
T lymphocytes [20]
CD4+ T lymphocytes [13, 20]
CD8+ T lymphocytes [19, 20]
Monocytes [16, 19]
DCs (myeloid-lineage) [16]
NB [5]
RT-PCR [11, 1315, 19, 20]
ICC [11, 13]
IF [11, 12]
FC [20]
Neutrophilic granulocytes [11]
PBMCs [11, 13, 19]
PBLs [11, 12]
B lymphocytes [20]
T lymphocytes [19, 20]
CD4+ T lymphocytes [19]
CD14+ cells [20]
Monocytes [11, 13, 14]
DCs (myeloid-lineage) [1315, 19]
DCs (plasmacytoid) [15]

Skeletal muscleRT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [18]

Cartilage and boneRT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [18]
RT-PCR [21]Chondrocytes [21]

Heart and blood vesselsisH [10]
RT-PCR [18]
IHC [10, 18]

Respiratory system (upper and lower tract)isH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [10, 18]

Gastrointestinal system (upper tract, small and large bowel, salivary glands)RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [18]
NB [4]

Endocrine glands (parathyroid glands, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal gland)NB [4]
isH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
WB [12]
IHC [10, 18]
NB [5]

Genito-urinary system, placenta, mammary glandisH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [10, 18]
NB [5]

Skin and annexesisH [10]
RT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [10, 18]
RT-PCR [22]
IF [22, 23]
Keratinocytes (epidermal and HF) [23]

Central and peripheral nervous systemRT-PCR [16, 18]
IHC [18]

Eye and annexesRT-PCR [18]
IHC [18]

AIRE: autoimmune regulator, GALT: gut-associated lymphoid tissue, PBMCs: peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBLs: peripheral blood lymphocytes, DCs: dendritic cells, HF: hair-follicle, CD: cluster of differentiation, NB: Northern blotting, isH: in situ hybridization, RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, WB: Western blotting, IHC: immunohistochemistry, ICC: immunocytochemistry, IF: immunofluorescence, and FC: flow cytometry.