Table 2: Aire expression (Aire mRNA and Aire protein) in murine extra-thymic systems, organs, and tissues.

Aire expression negative or negligibly positiveAire expression moderately or strongly positive
Systems, organs, tissuesTechniquesCell typesTechniquesCell types

Bone marrowisH [29]
IHC [29]
Myeloblasts [29]
Lymphoblasts [29]
Megacaryocytes [29]

Lymph nodesWB [28]
IHC [28, 29]
Lymphocytes (germinal-center) [29]isH [29]
RT-PCR [2830]
IHC [29, 32]
Lymphocytes (germinal-center) [32]
Lymphocytes (paracortical) [32]
Lymphocytes (medullary) [29]
DCs [29]

SpleenNB [26, 27]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [27]
WB [28]
IHC [28, 29, 32]
Lymphocytes (red-pulp) [32]
Lymphocytes (white-pulp) [29]
isH [29]
RT-PCR [26, 2832]
IHC [29, 32]
IF [32]
Neutrophilic granulocytes [29]
Lymphocytes (red-pulp) [29]
Lymphocytes (white-pulp) [32]
B lymphocytes [32]
T lymphocytes [32]
DCs [29]
DCs (myeloid-lineage) [28, 31]
DCs (lymphoid-lineage) [28]
Macrophages [29]
Smooth-muscle cells [29]

Fetal liverRT-PCR [29]

Adult liverNB [26, 27]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [27, 30]
WB [28, 32]
IHC [28, 32]
isH [29]
RT-PCR [28, 29, 32]
IHC [29, 34]
Hepatocytes [29, 34]
Küpffer cells [29]

Peripheral blood leukocytesRT-PCR [28]ICC [29]Neutrophilic granulocytes [29]
PBLs [29]
Monocytes [29]

Skeletal muscleNB [26, 27]
WB [28]
IHC [28]
RT-PCR [26, 28]

HeartNB [26]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [27, 30]
IHC [32]
RT-PCR [26, 32]

Respiratory system (upper and lower tract)NB [26]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [30]
WB [28]
IHC [28, 32]
Small-airway epithelial cells [32]
Alveolar cells [32]
RT-PCR [26, 27, 32]
IHC [29, 32]
Airway epithelial cells [29]
Large-airway epithelial cells [32]
Type-1 and type-2 pneumocytes [29]
Alveolar macrophages [29]

Salivary glandsRT-PCR [30]IHC [29]Tubulo-acinar and duct cells [29]

Gastrointestinal system (upper tract)NB [27]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [30]
RT-PCR [32]
IHC [29]
Mucosal and glandular epithelial cells [29]

Gastrointestinal system (small intestine and large bowel)NB [27]
isH [32]
IHC [32]
Enterocytes (small intestine) [32]
Neuroendocrine cells [32]
RT-PCR [32]
IHC [29, 32]
Mucosal and glandular epithelial cells [29]
Goblet cells [32]

HypophysisIHC [29]Anterior- and intermediate-lobe cells [29]

ThyroidRT-PCR [27, 30]IHC [29]Follicular and parafollicular cells [29]

PancreasRT-PCR [27, 28, 30]IHC [29]Langerhans-islet cells [29]
Acinar cells [29]

Adrenal glandisH [32]
RT-PCR [30, 32]
WB [28, 32]
IHC [28, 32]
RT-PCR [27, 28]
IHC [29]
Cortical-layer cells [29]
Medullary chromaffin cells [29]

Urinary systemNB [26]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [26, 30]
WB [28]
IHC [28]
isH [29]
RT-PCR [27, 29, 32]
IHC [29, 32]
Glomerular and tubular epithelial cells [29, 32]
Urinary-tract epithelial cells [29]
Bladder smooth-muscle cells [29]

Male genital systemNB [26]
isH [32]
WB [28]
IHC [28, 32]
Mature germinal cells [32]isH [29]
RT-PCR [2629, 32]
IHC [29, 32]
Germinal cells [29]
Immature germinal cells [32]
Sertoli cells [29]
Leydig cells [29]
Spermatic-tract epithelial cells [29]

Female genital systemisH [32]
WB [28]
IHC [28]
isH [29]
RT-PCR [27, 30, 32]
IHC [29, 32]
Oocytes [29]
Follicular cells [29, 32]
Luteal cells [29]
Interstitial cells [29]
Fallopian-tube epithelial cells [32]
Endometrial cells [29]
Myometrial cells [29]

Central and peripheral nervous systemNB [26]
isH [32]
RT-PCR [26]
isH [29]
RT-PCR [29, 32]
IHC [29, 32, 34]
Neurons of cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, brainstem nuclei, spinal cord [29, 32]
Granular neurons, Purkinje cells [29, 34]
Glial cells [29]

Eye and annexesRT-PCR [30]IHC [29]Retinal-layer elements [29]

Aire: autoimmune regulator, PBLs: peripheral blood lymphocytes, DCs: dendritic cells, NB: Northern blotting, isH: in situ hybridization, RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, WB: Western blotting, IHC: immunohistochemistry, ICC: immunocytochemistry, and IF: immunofluorescence.