Table 1: Characteristics of SLE patients and the control subjects.

SLE ( )Control ( )

Age (years)30.6 ± 11.529.7 ± 6.8
Sex (female/male)54/427/3
Disease duration (months)24.9 ± 40.9
Alopecia (%)13 (22.4)
Rash (%)34 (58.6)
Arthritis (%)11 (19.0)
Fever (%)15 (25.9)
Pleuritis (%)9 (15.5)
Anemia (%)28 (48.3)
Leukopenia (%)23 (39.7)
Thrombocytopenia (%)5 (8.6)
Current renal disease (%)33 (56.9)
Vasculitis (%)24 (41.4)
Anti-ds-DNA (%)34 (58.6)
Low C3 (%) 35 (60.3)
Low C4 (%)30 (51.7)
ESR (%) 41 (70.7)
CRP (%)19 (32.7)
24-hour urine protein (%)28 (48.3)
SLEDAI 0 to 34
(22.5 ± 12.02)

Abbreviations—SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI: systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index; C3: complement 3; C4: complement 4; CRP: C-reactive protein; anti-ds-DNA: anti-double stranded DNA antibody; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.