Table 2: Clinical studies applying CIK cells for the treatment of RCC.

StudyNumber of patientsTherapeutic approachClinical responseConclusion

Schmidt-Wolf et al. [37] 10 (1 RCC)Auto-CIKs transfected with IL-2 gene1 CR, 3 SD, 6 PDLow toxicity of CIK cell therapy; CR in RCC patient
Ren et al. [31] 66 (6 RCC)Auto-CIKs40 SD, 3 PR, 11, 12 lostDisease stage had no influence on antitumor activity of CIK cells; number of infusion cycles and proportion of CD3+CD56+ cells important for clinical outcome
Olioso et al. [38]12 (5 RCC)Auto-CIKs3 CR (1 RCC), 2 SD (both RCC), 3 withdrawn from study; response rate: 33%No significant differences in number of infused CIK cells between responders and nonresponders; 2 of 3 CR received additional IL-2/IFN-α therapy
Su et al. [40]16 (all RCC)Auto-CIKs3 CR, 1 PR, 6 SD, 6 PD; response rate: 25%AE transient and controllable; increased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by PBMC after CIK cell treatment
Liu et al. [13]148 (all RCC)Arm 1: auto-CIKs
Arm 2: IL-2 + IFN-α
Arm 1: 13 CR, 26 PR, 25 SD, 10 PD; response rate: 53%
Arm 2: 5 CR, 15 PR, 25 SD, 29 PD; response rate: 27%
CIK cell treatment significantly improves prognosis of metastatic RCC; prognosis significantly better in patients who received ≥7 cycles of CIK infusions
Lei et al. [41]28 (all RCC)Group A: auto-CIKs + IL-2 + IFN-α2b + chemo
Group B: IL-2 + IFN-α2b + chemo
January 2002–June 2006:
Group A: 15 at good health, 3Group B: 4 at good health, 6
Best period for infusions between 2 cycles of chemo/radiotherapy; CIK cells had a positive effect on postoperative RCC patients
Li et al. [42]12 (all RCC)Group 1: auto-CIKs
Group 2: biotherapy
Group 1: 6 CR, 1 PR
Group 2: All PD
CIK therapy safe and effective for localized RCC patients after radical nephrectomy
Wang et al. [43]10 (all RCC)Auto-CIKs + autologous renal tumor lysate-loaded DCs1 PR, 6 SD, 2 PD, 1 lostAE tolerable; short-term efficacy on advanced RCC through induction of specific antitumor immunity

Auto-CIKs: autologous CIK cells; IL-2: interleukin-2; CR: complete response; SD: stable disease; PD: progressive disease; PR: partial response; IFN-α: interferon-α; AE: adverse events; IFN-γ: interferon-γ; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; chemo: chemotherapy; dead; DCs: dendritic cells.