Table 3: Differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitides in children.

Infectous diseaseViral/bacterial encephalitis
Viral/bacterial menigitidis
Viral/bacterial sepsi

Metabolic diseaseMitochondrial disease
Amino acid disorders
Organic acidemias
Urea cycle disorders
Fatty acid oxidation disorders
Fabry disease
Homocystinuria
Leukodystrophies

Demyelinating diseasesMultiple sclerosis
Acute-disseminated encephalomyelitis

Thromboembolic diseasesAntiphospholipid syndrome
Hypercoagulability states
Cholesterol embolisms
Cardiac myxoma
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

MalignanciesMultifocal glioma
CNS lymphoma
Angiocentric lymphoma
Intravascular lymphoma (malignant angioendotheliomatosis)

Autoimmune diseaseCeliac disease
Hashimoto’s encephalitis
Sarcoidosis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Neuronal antibody associated (NMDA-receptor associated encephalitis)

VascularArterial dissection
Fibromuscular dysplasia
Moyamoya disease
Vasospastic disorders

NutritionalVitamin B12 deficiency