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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 764213, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/764213
Review Article

Cellular-Based Immunotherapies for Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme

1Center for Biomaterial Development and Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Institute of Polymer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 14513 Teltow, Germany
2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
3Department of Internal Medicine V, Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Received 7 November 2011; Accepted 8 December 2011

Academic Editor: Luca Gattinoni

Copyright © 2012 Xun Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains to be a challenge with a median survival of 14.6 months following diagnosis. Standard treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy with temozolomide. Despite the fact that the brain constitutes an immunoprivileged site, recent observations after immunotherapies with lysate from autologous tumor cells pulsed on dendritic cells (DCs), peptides, protein, messenger RNA, and cytokines suggest an immunological and even clinical response from immunotherapies. Given this plethora of immunomodulatory therapies, this paper gives a structure overview of the state-of-the art in the field. Particular emphasis was also put on immunogenic antigens as potential targets for a more specific stimulation of the immune system against GBM.