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Figure 1: Increased frequency of circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cells in peripheral blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) from RA patients ( ) and healthy controls ( ) were stained with labelled antibodies as described in Methods. (a) Representative expression of ICOS versus CD4 expression by flow cytometry, values in each CD4+ gate (ICOShigh [black box], ICOS positive [ICOS intermediate plus ICOShigh [+]], and ICOS negative). (b) Representative flow cytometry plots of Tfh (CD4+ CXCR5+) cells. (c) Representative flow cytometry plots of Tfh (CD4+ CXCR5+ ICOShigh) cells. (d) Percentage of CD4+ ICOS+ T lymphocytes in RA patients and healthy controls (*** ). (e) Percentage of CD4+ ICOShigh T lymphocytes in RA patients and healthy controls (*** ). (f) Percentage of CD4+ CXCR5+ T lymphocytes in RA patients and healthy controls (** ). (g) Percentage of CD4+ CXCR5+ ICOShigh T lymphocytes in RA patients and healthy controls (*** ). Each data point represents an individual subject, and horizontal lines show the median.