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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 869505, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/869505
Review Article

Characteristics of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell and CD4+ T Cell in HIV Elite Controllers

1CNRS UMR 8147 and Hôpital Necker, Université Paris Descartes, 149-161 rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France
2CNRS UMR 8601, Université Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saint-Pères, 75006 Paris, France
3Unité d'Immunologie Humaine, Centre Medical Necker Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France

Received 21 August 2012; Revised 22 October 2012; Accepted 23 October 2012

Academic Editor: Vicki L. Traina-Dorge

Copyright © 2012 Jean-Philippe Herbeuval et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Despite variability, the majority of HIV-1-infected individuals progress to AIDS characterized by high viral load and massive CD4+ T-cell depletion. However, there is a subset of HIV-1-positive individuals that does not progress and spontaneously maintains an undetectable viral load. This infrequent patient population is defined as HIV-1 controllers (HIV controllers), and represents less than 1% of HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells and the pool of central memory CD4+ T cells are also preserved despite immune activation due to HIV-1 infection. The majority of HIV controllers are also defined by the absence of massive CD4+ T-cell depletion, even after 10 years of infection. However, the mechanisms involved in protection against HIV-1 disease progression have not been elucidated yet. Controllers represent a heterogeneous population; we describe in this paper some common characteristics concerning innate immune response and CD4+ T cells of HIV controllers.