- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 962702, 11 pages
Complement Diagnostics: Concepts, Indications, and Practical Guidelines
1Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
2School of Natural Sciences, Linnæus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
Received 6 August 2012; Accepted 17 October 2012
Academic Editor: Daniel Rittirsch
Copyright © 2012 Bo Nilsson and Kristina Nilsson Ekdahl. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. E. Mollnes, T. S. Jokiranta, L. Truedsson, B. Nilsson, S. Rodriguez de Cordoba, and M. Kirschfink, “Complement analysis in the 21st century,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 44, no. 16, pp. 3838–3849, 2007.
- D. Ricklin, G. Hajishengallis, K. Yang, and J. D. Lambris, “Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis,” Nature Immunology, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 785–797, 2010.
- D. Spitzer, L. M. Mitchell, J. P. Atkinson, and D. E. Hourcade, “Properdin can initiate complement activation by binding specific target surfaces and providing a platform for de novo convertase assembly,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 2600–2608, 2007.
- M. V. Carroll and R. B. Sim, “Complement in health and disease,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 965–975, 2011.
- Y. Banz and R. Rieben, “Role of complement and perspectives for intervention in ischemia-reperfusion damage,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 205–217, 2012.
- S. Ram, L. A. Lewis, and P. A. Rice, “Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 740–780, 2010.
- L. Skattum, M. Van Deuren, T. Van Der Poll, and L. Truedsson, “Complement deficiency states and associated infections,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 48, no. 14, pp. 1643–1655, 2011.
- P. Hillmen, N. S. Young, J. Schubert et al., “The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 12, pp. 1233–1243, 2006.
- R. A. Gruppo and R. P. Rother, “Eculizumab for congenital atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 5, pp. 544–546, 2009.
- L. Anne-Laure, M. Malina, V. Fremeaux-Bacchi et al., “Eculizumab in severe shiga-toxin—associated HUS,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 26, pp. 2561–2563, 2011.
- S. Radhakrishnan, A. Lunn, M. Kirschfink, and P. Thorner, “Eculizumab and refractory membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 12, pp. 1165–1166, 2012.
- A. R. Biglarnia, B. Nilsson, T. Nilsson et al., “Prompt reversal of a severe complement activation by eculizumab in a patient undergoing intentional ABO-incompatible pancreas and kidney transplantation,” Transplant International, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. e61–e66, 2011.
- L. Luzzatto, “Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: an acquired X-linked genetic disease with somatic-cell mosaicism,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 317–322, 2006.
- H. Schrezenmeier and B. Höchsmann, “Drugs that inhibit complement,” Transfusion and Apheresis Science, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 2012.
- C. J. Parker, “Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria,” Current Opinion in Hematology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 141–148, 2012.
- P. E. Spronk, P. C. Limburg, and C. G. M. Kallenberg, “Serological markers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Lupus, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 86–94, 1995.
- J. Venzor, W. L. Lee, and D. P. Huston, “Urticarial vasculitis,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201–216, 2002.
- G. Rostoker, J. M. Pawlotsky, A. Bastie, B. Weil, and D. Dhumeaux, “Type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and HCV infection,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 4, supplement, pp. 22–24, 1996.
- H. A. Schneider, R. A. Yonker, P. Katz, and S. Longley, “Rheumatoid vasculitis: experience with 13 patients and review of the literature,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 280–286, 1985.
- B. Nilsson, K. Nilsson Ekdahl, A. Sjöholm, U. R. Nilsson, and G. Sturfelt, “Detection and characterization of immunoconglutinins in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): serial analysis in relation to disease course,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 251–255, 1992.
- J. Rönnelid, I. Gunnarsson, K. Nilsson-Ekdahl, and B. Nilsson, “Correlation between anti-C1q and immune conglutinin levels, but not between levels of antibodies to the structurally related autoantigens C1q and type II collagen in SLE or RA,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415–423, 1997.
- L. A. Trouw and M. R. Daha, “Role of anti-C1q autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2005.
- S. Sethi, C. M. Nester, and R. J. Smith, “Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and C3 glomerulopathy: resolving the confusion,” Kidney International, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 434–441, 2012.
- L. Sartz, A. I. Olin, A. C. Kristoffersson, and A. L. Ståhl, “A novel C3 mutation causing increased formation of the C3 convertase in familial atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, no. 4, pp. 2030–2037, 2012.
- D. Westra, K. A. Vernon, E. B. Volokhina, M. C. Pickering, N. C. van de Kar, and L. P. van den Heuvel, “Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and genetic aberrations in the complement factor H-related 5 gene,” Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 459–464, 2012.
- B. L. Zuraw and S. C. Christiansen, “Pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema,” American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 373–378, 2011.
- M. Cicardi, A. Beretta, M. Colombo, D. Gioffré, M. Cugno, and A. Agostoni, “Relevance of lymphoproliferative disorders and of anti-C1 inhibitor autoantibodies in acquired angio-oedem,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 475–480, 1996.
- M. Cicardi and A. Zanichelli, “The acquired deficiency of c1-inhibitor: lymphoproliferation and angioedema,” Current Molecular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 354–360, 2010.
- R. Norda, U. Schött, O. Berséus et al., “Complement activation products in liquid stored plasma and C3a kinetics after transfusion of autologous plasma,” Vox Sanguinis, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 125–133, 2012.
- B. Teisner, I. Brandslund, N. Grunnet, et al., “Acute complement activation during an anaphylactoid reaction to blood transfusion and the disappearance rate of C3c and C3d from the circulation,” Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 63–67, 1983.
- K. Nilsson Ekdahl, B. Nilsson, M. Pekna, and U. R. Nilsson, “Generation of iC3 at the interface between blood and gas,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 1992.
- P. Garred, T. E. Mollnes, T. Lea, and E. Fischer, “Characterization of a monoclonal antibody MoAb bH6 reacting with a neoepitope of human C3 expressed on C3b, iC3b, and C3c,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 319–327, 1988.
- T. E. Mollnes, T. Lea, S. S. Froland, and M. Harboe, “Quantification of the terminal complement complex in human plasma by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibodies against a neoantigen of the complex,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 197–202, 1985.
- K. N. Ekdahl, D. Norberg, A. A. Bengtsson, G. Sturfelt, U. R. Nilsson, and B. Nilsson, “Use of serum or buffer-changed EDTA-plasma in a rapid, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform hemolytic complement assay for differential diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus and monitoring of patients with the disease,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 549–555, 2007.
- M. M. Mayer, “Complement and complement fixation,” in Experimental Immunochemistry, E. A. Kabat and M. M. Mayer, Eds., pp. 97–139, Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1961.
- U. R. Nilsson and B. Nilsson, “Simplified assays of hemolytic activity of the classical and alternative complement pathways,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 49–59, 1984.
- T. A. E. Platts Mills and K. Ishizaka, “Activation of the alternate pathway of human complement by rabbit cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 348–358, 1974.
- L. Truedsson, A. G. Sjöholm, and A. B. Laurell, “Screening for deficiencies in the classifcal and alternative pathways of complement by hemolysis in gel,” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica Section C, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 161–166, 1981.
- M. A. Seelen, A. Roos, J. Wieslander et al., “Functional analysis of the classical, alternative, and MBL pathways of the complement system: standardization and validation of a simple ELISA,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 296, no. 1-2, pp. 187–198, 2005.
- U. Rother, “A new screening test for C3 nephritis factor based on a stable cell bound convertase on sheep erythrocytes,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 101–107, 1982.
- D. K. Peters, A. Martin, A. Weinstein et al., “Complement studies in membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 311–320, 1972.
- L. Skattum, U. Mårtensson, and A. G. Sjöholm, “Hypocomplementaemia caused by C3 nephritic factors (C3 NeF): clinical findings and the coincidence of C3 NeF type II with anti-C1q autoantibodies,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 242, no. 6, pp. 455–464, 1997.
- R. J. H. Smith, J. Alexander, P. N. Barlow, et al., “New approaches to the treatment of dense deposit disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 18, pp. 2447–2456, 2007.
- D. Paixao-Cavalcante, M. López-Trascasa, L. Skattum, et al., “Sensitive and specific assays for C3 nephritic factors clarify mechanisms underlying complement dysregulation,” Kidney International, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1084–1092, 2012.
- B. Nilsson, K. Nilsson Ekdahl, M. Svarvare, A. Bjelle, and U. R. Nilsson, “Purification and characterization of IgG immunoconglutinins from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: implications for a regulatory function,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 262–267, 1990.
- D. T. Johnston, “Diagnosis and management of Hereditary Angioedema,” Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2011.
- A. Frazer-Abel and P. C. Giclas, “Update on laboratory tests for the diagnosis and differentiation of hereditary angioedema and acquired angioedema,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. S17–S21, 2011.
- Y. Yang, E. K. Chung, L. W. Yee et al., “Gene copy-number variation and associated polymorphisms of complement component C4 in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): low copy number is a risk factor for and high copy number is a protective factor against SLE susceptibility in European Americans,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1037–1054, 2007.