Table 2: Comparisons of demographic, clinical, and laboratory features, vascular risk factors, and medications between the 9 PAPS patients with seizures and PAPS patients without seizures ( 𝑛 = 7 9 ).

PAPS with seizuresPAPS without seizures 𝑃 values
𝑛 = 9 𝑛 = 7 9

Age, years 4 4 . 6 ± 1 0 . 7 4 0 . 1 ± 1 1 . 2 0.261
White race, 𝑛 (%)7 (77.8)65 (82.3)0.665
Female gender, 𝑛 (%)7 (77.8)65 (82.3)0.665
Body mass index, kg/m2 2 7 . 8 ± 3 . 1 2 8 . 0 ± 7 . 5 0.933
Arterial events, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)38 (48.1)0.484
Venous events, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)49 (62.0)0.474
Obstetric events, 𝑛 (%)3 (33.3)31 (39.2)1.000
Thrombocytopenia, 𝑛 (%)2 (22.2)19 (24.1)1.000
Livedo reticularis, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)24 (30.4)0.057
Stroke, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)24 (30.4)0.057
Sneddon’s syndrome, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)12 (15.2)0.053
Pulmonary thromboembolism, 𝑛 (%)1 (11.1)19 (24.1)0.678
Deep venous thrombosis, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)40 (50.6)0.680
Angina, 𝑛 (%)1 (11.1)7 (8.9)1.000
Acute myocardial infarction, 𝑛 (%)01 (1.2)1.000
Sedentarism, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)50 (63.3)1.000
Disease duration, months 8 8 . 4 ± 9 4 9 4 . 6 ± 6 4 . 3 0.398
Metabolic syndrome, 𝑛 (%)017 (21.5)0.270
Diabetes, 𝑛 (%)06 (7.6)0.874
Systemic hypertension, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)37 (46.8)0.892
Previous history of smoking, 𝑛 (%)5 (55.5)28 (35.4)<0.001
Current smoking, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)8 (10.1)0.019
Alcoholism, 𝑛 (%)1 (11.1)00.102
Heparin use, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)40 (50.6)0.575
Current chloroquine use, 𝑛 (%)2 (22.2)37 (46.8)0.153
Statin use, 𝑛 (%)4 (44.4)20 (25.3)0.680
IgG anticardiolipin levels, GPL 5 5 . 1 ± 4 5 . 9 4 0 . 0 ± 4 6 . 2 0.357
IgG anticardiolipin, 𝑛 (%)7 (77.8)44 (55.7)0.293
IgM anticardiolipin levels, MPL 1 7 . 7 ± 1 9 . 9 2 9 . 9 ± 4 0 . 2 0.373
IgM anticardiolipin, 𝑛 (%)5 (55.6)40 (50.6)1.000
Lupus anticoagulant, 𝑛 (%)6 (66.7)60 (75.9)0.839
IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, U/mL 2 6 . 6 ± 3 1 . 3 2 2 2 . 6 ± 3 5 . 0 2 0.809
IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, 𝑛 (%)2 (22.2)13 (20.9)0.669
IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, U/mL 1 2 . 0 ± 1 2 . 4 1 4 . 5 ± 3 2 . 4 0.862
IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, 𝑛 (%)1 (11.1)7 (8.9)1.000

Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentage; PAPS: primary antiphospholipid syndrome; 𝑛 = number of patients; SD = standard deviation.