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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 289458, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/289458
Review Article

Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

Received 1 March 2013; Revised 16 May 2013; Accepted 16 May 2013

Academic Editor: Giacomina Brunetti

Copyright © 2013 Angela Oranger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and decreased osteoblast differentiation. A dysregulated production of numerous cytokines that can contribute to the uncoupling of bone cell activity is well documented in the bone marrow microenvironment of MM patients. These molecules are produced not only by malignant plasma cells, that directly contribute to MM bone disease, but also by bone, immune, and stromal cells interacting with each other in the bone microenvironment. This review focuses on the current knowledge of MM bone disease biology, with particular regard on the role of bone and immune cells in producing cytokines critical for malignant plasma cell proliferation as well as in osteolysis development. Therefore, the understanding of MM pathogenesis could be useful to the discovery of novel agents that will be able to both restore bone remodelling and reduce tumor burden.