Table 1: Mediators of inflammation that play important roles in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

Inflammatory mediatorPutative roles in lupus nephritis

IL-6(i) Activates B cells
(ii) Induces glomerulonephritis
IFN- (i) Interferes with vascular repair by inducing endothelial progenitor cell apoptosis
(ii) Induces renal dysfunction, glomerulonephritis, crescent formation, and tubulointerstitial nephritis
IFN- Promotes macrophage recruitment into the kidney and the development of glomerulonephritis
TNF- (i) Regulates physiological and inflammatory immune responses
(ii) Induces synthesis of IL-1 and IL-6 in mesangial cells and proximal renal tubular epithelial cells
(iii) Elicits both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions in lupus nephritis
Hyaluronan (HA)(i) Forms HA cables that can prevent leukocyte adhesion to their receptors
(ii) Induces chemokine secretion
(iii) Possesses proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties