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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 382698, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/382698
Review Article

FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

Received 1 March 2013; Revised 17 May 2013; Accepted 17 May 2013

Academic Editor: Giacomina Brunetti

Copyright © 2013 Graziana Colaianni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic cytokine expression, such as TNFα and IL-1, underlining the correlation of pituitary-bone axis to the immune system.