- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 387023, 8 pages
Chitin, Chitosan, and Glycated Chitosan Regulate Immune Responses: The Novel Adjuvants for Cancer Vaccine
1Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China
2Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China
3Department of Laser Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
4ImmunoPhotonics Inc., Columbia, MO 65211, USA
5Dermatology Associates of San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78233, USA
6Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034, USA
Received 12 September 2012; Revised 22 December 2012; Accepted 26 December 2012
Academic Editor: Clelia M. Riera
Copyright © 2013 Xiaosong Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- I. Mellman, G. Coukos, and G. Dranoff, “Cancer immunotherapy comes of age,” Nature, vol. 480, no. 7378, pp. 480–489, 2011.
- M. Vanneman and G. Dranoff, “Combining immunotherapy and targeted therapies in cancer treatment,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 237–251, 2012.
- O. J. Finn, “Molecular origins of cancer: cancer immunology,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 25, pp. 2704–2715, 2008.
- G. Zhou and H. Levitsky, “Towards curative cancer immunotherapy: overcoming posttherapy tumor escape,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2012, Article ID 124187, 12 pages, 2012.
- C. L. Zindl and D. D. Chaplin, “Immunology: tumor immune evasion,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5979, pp. 697–698, 2010.
- D. M. Pardoll, “The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy,” NatureReviews Cancer, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 252–264, 2012.
- A. Batista-Duharte, E. B. Lindblad, and E. Oviedo-Orta, “Progress in understanding adjuvant immunotoxicity mechanisms,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 97–105, 2011.
- E. Montomoli, S. Piccirella, B. Khadang, et al., “Current adjuvants and new perspectives invaccine formulation,” Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1053–1061, 2011.
- V. E. J. C. Schijns, “Mechanisms of vaccine adjuvant activity: initiation and regulation of immune responses by vaccine adjuvants,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 9-10, pp. 829–831, 2003.
- T. Seya, T. Akazawa, J. Uehori, M. Matsumoto, I. Azuma, and K. Toyoshima, “Role of toll-like receptors and their adaptors in adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 23, no. 6 A, pp. 4369–4376, 2003.
- A. C. Allison, “Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants,” Methods, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 1999.
- D. Felnerova, J. F. Viret, R. Glück, and C. Moser, “Liposomes and virosomes as delivery systems for antigens, nucleic acids and drugs,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 518–529, 2004.
- R. Schwaninger, E. Waelti, P. Zajac, A. Wetterwald, D. Mueller, and C. D. Gimmi, “Virosomes as new carrier system for cancer vaccines,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1005–1017, 2004.
- S. Gnjatic, N. B. Sawhney, and N. Bhardwaj, “Toll-like receptor agonists are they good adjuvants?” Cancer Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 382–391, 2010.
- S. Adams, “Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy,” Immunotherapy, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 949–964, 2009.
- B. Plohmann, G. Bader, K. Hiller, and G. Franz, “Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of triterpenoid saponins,” Pharmazie, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 953–957, 1997.
- A. T. Glenny, C. G. Pope, H. Waddington, et al., “Immunological notes XVII to XXIV,” The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, vol. 29, pp. 31–40, 1926.
- F. R. Vogel and M. F. Powell, “A compendium of vaccine adjuvants and excipients,” Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 6, pp. 141–228, 1995.
- M. Yang, Y. Yan, M. Fang, et al., “MF59 formulated with CpG ODN as a potent adjuvant of recombinant HSP65-MUC1 for inducing anti-MUC1(+) tumor immunity in mice,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 408–416, 2012.
- C. W. Cluff, “Monophosphoryl lipid a (MPL) as an adjuvant for anti-cancer vaccines: clinical results,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 667, pp. 111–123, 2009.
- R. K. Gupta and G. R. Siber, “Adjuvants for human vaccines. Current status, problems and future prospects,” Vaccine, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 1263–1276, 1995.
- D. F. Hoft, V. Brusic, and I. G. Sakala, “Optimizing vaccine development,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 934–942, 2011.
- J. Cebon, “Cancer vaccines: where are we going?” Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 6, no. supplement 1, pp. S9–S15, 2010.
- J. Schlom, “Therapeutic cancer vaccines: current status and moving forward,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 104, no. 8, pp. 599–613, 2012.
- B. Krajewska, “Membrane-based processes performed with use of chitin/chitosan materials,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 305–312, 2005.
- R. A. A. Muzzarelli, “Human enzymatic activities related to the therapeutic administration of chitin derivatives,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 131–140, 1997.
- C. K. S. Pillai, W. Paul, and C. P. Sharma, “Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 641–678, 2009.
- Y. Zhao, R. D. Park, and R. A. A. Muzzarelli, “Chitin deacetylases: properties and applications,” Marine Drugs, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 24–46, 2010.
- J. Synowiecki and N. A. Al-Khateeb, “Production, properties, and some new applications of chitin and its derivatives,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 145–171, 2003.
- Y. Kato, H. Onishi, and Y. Machida, “Application of chitin and chitosan derivatives in the pharmaceutical field,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 303–309, 2003.
- M. D. Gades and J. S. Stern, “Chitosan supplementation and fat absorption in men and women,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 72–77, 2005.
- G. R. Kaats, J. E. Michalek, and H. G. Preuss, “Evaluating efficacy of a chitosan product using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 389–394, 2006.
- V. Jarmila and E. Vavríková, “Chitosan derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumour and antioxidant activities—a review,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 17, no. 32, pp. 3596–3607, 2011.
- A. Mahapatro and D. K. Singh, “Biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent vehicle for site directed in-vivo delivery of drugs and vaccines,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 9, no. 55, 2011.
- M. P. Patel, R. R. Patel, and J. K. Patel, “Chitosan mediated targeted drug delivery system: a review,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 536–557, 2010.
- P. Fonte, J. C. Andrade, V. Seabra, et al., “Chitosan-based nanoparticles as delivery systems of therapeutic proteins,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 899, pp. 471–487, 2012.
- T. Dai, M. Tanaka, Y. Y. Huang, and M. R. Hamblin, “Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 857–879, 2011.
- T. Takei, H. Nakahara, H. Ijima, et al., “Synthesis of a chitosan derivative soluble at neutral pH and gellable by freeze-thawing, and its application in wound care,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 686–693, 2012.
- K. Suzuki, Y. Okawa, and K. Hashimoto, “Protecting effect of chitin and chitosan on experimentally induced murine candidiasis,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 903–912, 1984.
- K. Nishimura, S. Nishimura, and N. Nishi, “Immunological activity of chitin and its derivatives,” Vaccine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 1984.
- K. Nishimura, C. Ishihara, and S. Ukei, “Stimulation of cytokine production in mice using deacetylated chitin,” Vaccine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 151–156, 1986.
- K. Nishimura, S. I. Nishimura, and N. Nishi, “Adjuvant activity of chitin derivatives in mice and guinea-pigs,” Vaccine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 379–384, 1985.
- I. M. van der Lubben, J. C. Verhoef, G. Borchard, and H. E. Junginger, “Chitosan for mucosal vaccination,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 139–144, 2001.
- R. C. Read, S. C. Naylor, C. W. Potter, et al., “Effective nasal influenza vaccine delivery using chitosan,” Vaccine, vol. 23, no. 35, pp. 4367–4374, 2005.
- E. A. McNeela, I. Jabbal-Gill, L. Illum et al., “Intranasal immunization with genetically detoxified diphtheria toxin induces T cell responses in humans: enhancement of Th2 responses and toxin-neutralizing antibodies by formulation with chitosan,” Vaccine, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 909–914, 2004.
- L. Illum, I. Jabbal-Gill, M. Hinchcliffe, A. N. Fisher, and S. S. Davis, “Chitosan as a novel nasal delivery system for vaccines,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 51, no. 1–3, pp. 81–96, 2001.
- M. J. Heffernan, D. A. Zaharoff, J. K. Fallon, J. Schlom, and J. W. Greiner, “In vivo efficacy of a chitosan/IL-12 adjuvant system for protein-based vaccines,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 926–932, 2011.
- A. K. Azab, V. Doviner, B. Orkin et al., “Biocompatibility evaluation of crosslinked chitosan hydrogels after subcutaneous and intraperitoneal implantation in the rat,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 414–422, 2007.
- J. Yao, J. P. Zhou, Q. N. Ping, Y. Lu, and L. Chen, “Distribution of nobiletin chitosan-based microemulsions in brain following i.v. injection in mice,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 352, no. 1-2, pp. 256–262, 2008.
- C. Kwak, K. H. Sung, K. S. Seung, M. R. Jei, S. P. Moon, and E. L. Sang, “Effective local control of prostate cancer by intratumoral injection of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1400–1405, 2005.
- Y. Shibata, L. A. Foster, W. J. Metzger, et al., “Alveolar macrophage priming by intravenous administration of chitin particles, polymers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, in mice,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 1734–1741, 1997.
- Y. Shibata, W. James Metzger, and Q. N. Myrvik, “Chitin particle-induced cell-mediated immunity is inhibited by soluble mannan: mannose receptor-mediated phagocytosis initiates IL-12 production,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 2462–2467, 1997.
- S. Tokura, H. Tamura, and I. Azuma, “Immunological aspects of chitin and chitin derivatives administered to animals,” EXS, vol. 87, pp. 279–292, 1999.
- C. G. Lee, C. A. Da Silva, J. Y. Lee, D. Hartl, and J. A. Elias, “Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 684–689, 2008.
- C. G. Lee, “Chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 22–30, 2009.
- C. A. Da Silva, P. Pochard, C. G. Lee, and J. A. Elias, “Chitin particles are multifaceted immune adjuvants,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 182, no. 12, pp. 1482–1491, 2010.
- J. Marcinkiewicz, A. Polewska, and J. Knapczyk, “Immunoadjuvant properties of chitosan,” Archivum Immunologiae Et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 127–132, 1991.
- P. G. Seferian and M. L. Martinez, “Immune stimulating activity of two new chitosan containing adjuvant formulations,” Vaccine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 661–668, 2000.
- D. A. Zaharoff, C. J. Rogers, K. W. Hance, J. Schlom, and J. W. Greiner, “Chitosan solution enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to subcutaneous vaccination,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2085–2094, 2007.
- D. A. Zaharoff, C. J. Rogers, K. W. Hance, J. Schlom, and J. W. Greiner, “Chitosan solution enhances the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 52, pp. 8673–8686, 2007.
- D. A. Zaharoff, K. W. Hance, C. J. Rogers, J. Schlom, and J. W. Greiner, “Intratumoral immunotherapy of established solid tumors with chitosan/il-12,” Journal of Immunotherapy, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 697–705, 2010.
- V. K. Mourya and N. N. Inamdar, “Trimethyl chitosan and its applications in drug delivery,” Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1057–1079, 2009.
- D. Lee, Z. S. Quan, C. Lu, et al., “Preparation and physical properties of chitosan benzoic acid derivatives using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 2231–2239, 2012.
- G. Bajaj, W. G. Van Alstine, Y. Yeo, et al., “Zwitterionic chitosan derivative, a new biocompatible pharmaceutical excipient, prevents endotoxin-mediated cytokine release,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e30899, 2012.
- X. Li, P. Wu, G. F. Gao, et al., “Carbohydrate-functionalized chitosan fiber for influenza virus capture,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 3962–3969, 2011.
- Y. C. Chung, J. Y. Yeh, and C. F. Tsai, “Antibacterial characteristics and activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by the Maillard reaction,” Molecules, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 8504–8514, 2011.
- M. Sugano, S. Watanabe, A. Kishi, et al., “Hypocholesterolemic action of chitosans with different viscosity in rats,” Lipids, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 187–191, 1988.
- S. Song, F. Zhou, R. E. Nordquist, R. Carubelli, H. Liu, and W. R. Chen, “Glycated chitosan as a new non-toxic immunological stimulant Glycated chitosan immunological stimulant,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 202–208, 2009.
- F. Xu, H. Liu, X. Wu, et al., “Measurement of x-ray attenuation coefficients of aqueous solutions of indocyanine green and glycated chitosan,” Medical Physics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1371–1374, 1999.
- W. R. Chen, R. Carubelli, H. Liu, and R. E. Nordquist, “Laser immunotherapy: a novel treatment modality for metastatic tumors,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology B, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2003.
- W. R. Chen, H. Liu, J. W. Ritchey, et al., “Effect of different components of laser immunotherapy in treatment of metastatic tumors in rats,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 15, pp. 4295–4299, 2002.
- X. Li, G. L. Ferrel, M. C. Guerra, et al., “Preliminary safety and efficacy results of laser immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients,” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 817–821, 2011.
- W. R. Chen, M. Korbelik, K. E. Bartels, H. Liu, J. Sun, and R. E. Nordquist, “Enhancement of laser cancer treatment by a chitosan-derived immunoadjuvant,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 190–195, 2005.
- K. Le, X. Li, D. Figueroa, et al., “Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 16, no. 12, Article ID 128001, 2011.
- T. J. Yoon, J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, et al., “Anti-tumor immunostimulatory effect of heat-killed tumor cells,” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 130–144, 2008.
- E. Jager, D. Jager, and A. Knuth, “Antigen-specific immunotherapy and cancer vaccines,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 817–820, 2003.
- F. Wu, L. Zhou, and W. R. Chen, “Host antitumour immune responses to HIFU ablation,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 165–171, 2007.
- X. Li and W. R. Chen, “Laser immunotherapy: novel modality to treat cancer through specific antitumor immune response,” Zhongguo Jiguang/Chinese Journal of Lasers, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2698–2702, 2010.
- B. H. Segal, X. Y. Wang, C. G. Dennis, et al., “Heat shock proteins as vaccine adjuvants in infections and cancer,” Discovery Today, vol. 11, no. 11-12, pp. 534–540, 2006.
- B. Liu, D. Ye, X. Song et al., “A novel therapeutic fusion protein vaccine by two different families of heat shock proteins linked with HPV16 E7 generates potent antitumor immunity and antiangiogenesis,” Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1387–1396, 2008.
- A. Bolhassani and S. Rafati, “Heat-shock proteins as powerful weapons in vaccine development,” Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1185–1199, 2008.
- T. Torigoe, Y. Tamura, and N. Sato, “Heat shock proteins and immunity: application of hyperthermia for immunomodulation,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 610–616, 2009.
- M. Nishikawa, S. Takemoto, and Y. Takakura, “Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 354, no. 1-2, pp. 23–27, 2008.
- X. Li, F. Zhou, H. Le, et al., “Mechanism study of tumor-specific immune responses induced by laser immunotherapy,” in Biophotonics and Immune Responses VI, vol. 7900 of Proceedings of SPIE, 2011.
- T. B. H. Geijtenbeek and S. I. Gringhuis, “Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 465–479, 2009.
- F. Zhou, S. Song, W. R. Chen, et al., “Immunostimulatory properties of glycated chitosan,” Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 285–292, 2011.
- W. R. Chen, S. W. Jeong, M. D. Lucroy, et al., “Induced anti-tumor immunity against DMBA-4 metastatic mammary tumors in rats using a novel approach,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1053–1057, 2003.
- W. R. Chen, A. K. Singhal, H. Liu, et al., “Antitumor immunity induced by laser immunotherapy and its adoptive transfer,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 459–461, 2001.
- X. Li, H. Le, R. F. Wolf, et al., “Long-term effect on EMT6 tumors in mice induced by combination of laser immunotherapy and surgery,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 368–373, 2011.
- H. Peniche and C. Peniche, “Chitosan nanoparticles: a contribution to nanomedicine,” Polymer International, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 883–889, 2011.
- S. Sharma, T. K. Mukkur, H. A. Benson, et al., “Enhanced immune response against pertussis toxoid by IgA-loaded chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 233–244, 2012.
- J. J. Wang, Z. W. Zeng, R. Z. Xiao, et al., “Recent advances of chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 765–774, 2011.
- P. Yousefpour, F. Atyabi E, E. Vasheghani-Farahani, et al., “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin-utilizing chitosan nanoparticles surface-functionalized with anti-Her2 trastuzumab,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 1977–1990, 2011.
- Z. S. Wen, Y. L. Xu, X. T. Zou, and Z. R. Xu, “Chitosan nanoparticles act as an adjuvant to promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced by ovalbumin in mice,” Marine Drugs, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1038–1055, 2011.
- K. Y. Wu, M. Wu, M. L. Fu et al., “A novel chitosan CpG nanoparticle regulates cellular and humoral immunity of mice,” Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 87–95, 2006.
- M. A. Danesh-Bahreini, J. Shokri, A. Samiei, et al., “Nanovaccine for leishmaniasis: preparation of chitosan nanoparticles containing Leishmania superoxide dismutase and evaluation of its immunogenicity in BALB/c mice,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 835–842, 2011.
- N. Saranya, A. Moorthi, S. Saravanan, M. P. Devi, and N. Selvamurugan, “Chitosan and its derivatives for gene delivery,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 234–238, 2011.
- S. Park, E. J. Jeong, J. Lee, et al., “Preparation and characterization of nonaarginine-modified chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 92, pp. 57–62, 2013.