- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 510396, 12 pages
Microglia Play a Major Role in Direct Viral-Induced Demyelination
1Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata (IISER-K), Mohanpur Campus, P.O. Box BCKV Campus Main Office, Nadia, West Bengal Mohanpur 741252, India
2Central Animal Facility, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
Received 7 March 2013; Revised 14 May 2013; Accepted 15 May 2013
Academic Editor: Anirban Basu
Copyright © 2013 Dhriti Chatterjee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- W. J. Streit, R. E. Mrak, and W. S. T. Griffin, “Microglia and neuroinflammation: a pathological perspective,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 1, article 14, 2004.
- C. K. Glass, K. Saijo, B. Winner, M. C. Marchetto, and F. H. Gage, “Mechanisms underlying inflammation in neurodegeneration,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 918–934, 2010.
- J. H. Noseworthy, C. Lucchinetti, M. Rodriguez, and B. G. Weinshenker, “Multiple sclerosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 13, pp. 938–952, 2000.
- M. Sospedra and R. Martin, “Immunology of multiple sclerosis,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 23, pp. 683–747, 2005.
- G. C. Ebers, K. Kukay, D. E. Bulman et al., “A full genome search in multiple sclerosis,” Nature Genetics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 472–476, 1996.
- J. L. Haines, M. Ter-Minassian, A. Bazyk et al., “A complete genomic screen for multiple sclerosis underscores a role for the major histocompatibility complex,” Nature Genetics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 469–471, 1996.
- E. S. Huseby, D. Liggitt, T. Brabb, B. Schnabel, C. Öhlén, and J. Goverman, “A pathogenic role for myelin-specific CD8+ T cells in a model for multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 194, no. 5, pp. 669–676, 2001.
- T. Tsuchida, K. C. Parker, R. V. Turner, H. F. McFarland, J. E. Coligan, and W. E. Biddison, “Autoreactive CD8+ T-cell responses to human myelin protein-derived peptides,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 23, pp. 10859–10863, 1994.
- R. Gandhi, A. Laroni, and H. L. Weiner, “Role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 221, no. 1-2, pp. 7–14, 2010.
- Y. Konigshofer and Y. H. Chien, “γδ T cells—innate immune lymphocytes?” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 527–533, 2006.
- H. F. McFarland and R. Martin, “Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 913–919, 2007.
- L. Steinman, “Myelin-specific CD8 T cells in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalitis and multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 194, no. 5, pp. F27–F30, 2001.
- S. D. Miller, C. L. Vanderlugt, W. S. Begolka et al., “Persistent infection with Theiler's virus leads to CNS autoimmunity via epitope spreading,” Nature Medicine, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1133–1136, 1997.
- J. J. Houtman and J. O. Fleming, “Pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus-induced demyelination,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 361–376, 1996.
- S. A. Stohlman and L. P. Weiner, “Chronic central nervous system demyelination in mice after JHM virus infection,” Neurology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 1981.
- E. Lavi, D. H. Gilden, and Z. Wroblewska, “Experimental demyelination produced by the A59 strain of mouse hepatitis virus,” Neurology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 597–603, 1984.
- J. Das Sarma, “A mechanism of virus-induced demyelination,” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2010, Article ID 109239, 28 pages, 2010.
- J. Das Sarma, L. Fu, J. C. Tsai, S. R. Weiss, and E. Lavi, “Demyelination determinants map to the spike glycoprotein gene of coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 9206–9213, 2000.
- J. Das Sarma, K. Iacono, L. Gard et al., “Demyelinating and nondemyelinating strains of mouse hepatitis virus differ in their neural cell tropism,” Journal of Virology, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 5519–5526, 2008.
- J. Das Sarma, L. C. Kenyon, S. T. Hingley, and K. S. Shindler, “Mechanisms of primary axonal damage in a viral model of multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 33, pp. 10272–10280, 2009.
- J. Das Sarma, L. Fu, S. T. Hingley, and E. Lavi, “Mouse hepatitis virus type-2 infection in mice: an experimental model system of acute meningitis and hepatitis,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2001.
- J. K. Fazakerley and M. J. Buchmeiert, “Pathogenesis of virus-induced demyelination,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 42, pp. 249–324, 1993.
- M. Tardieu, O. Boespflug, and T. Barbe, “Selective tropism of a neurotropic coronavirus for ependymal cells, neurons, and meningeal cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 574–582, 1986.
- E. Lavi, P. S. Fishman, M. K. Highkin, and S. R. Weiss, “Limbic encephalitis after inhalation of a murine coronavirus,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 1988.
- M. Tardieu, A. Goffinet, G. Harmant-Van Rijckevorsel, and G. Lyon, “Ependymitis, leukoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and thrombotic vasculitis following chronic infection by mouse hepatitis virus 3 (MHV 3),” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 168–176, 1982.
- J. S. Haring, L. L. Pewe, and S. Perlman, “Bystander CD8 T cell-mediated demyelination after viral infection of the central nervous system,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 1550–1555, 2002.
- F.-I. Wang, S. A. Stohlman, and J. O. Fleming, “Demyelination induced by murine hepatitis virus JHM strian (MHV-4) is immunologically mediated,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 31–41, 1990.
- G. F. Wu, A. A. Dandekar, L. Pewe, and S. Perlman, “CD4 and CD8 T cells have redundant but not identical roles in virus-induced demyelination,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 2278–2286, 2000.
- A. E. Matthews, E. Lavi, S. R. Weiss, and Y. Paterson, “Neither B cells nor T cells are required for CNS demyelination in mice persistently infected with MHV-A59,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2002.
- R. M. Sutherland, M. M. Chua, E. Lavi, S. R. Weiss, and Y. Paterson, “CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are not major effectors of mouse hepatitis virus A59-induced demyelinating disease,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 225–228, 1997.
- K. S. Shindler, L. C. Kenyon, M. Dutt, S. T. Hingley, and J. Das Sarma, “Experimental optic neuritis induced by a demyelinating strain of mouse hepatitis virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 82, no. 17, pp. 8882–8886, 2008.
- J. Das Sarma, E. Scheen, S. H. Seo, M. Koval, and S. R. Weiss, “Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression may be used to monitor murine coronavirus spread in vitro and in the mouse central nervous system,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 381–391, 2002.
- F. Fischer, D. Peng, S. T. Hingley, S. R. Weiss, and P. S. Masters, “The internal open reading frame within the nucleocapsid gene of mouse hepatitis virus encodes a structural protein that is not essential for viral replication,” Journal of Virology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 996–1003, 1997.
- F. Fischer, C. F. Stegen, C. A. Koetzner, and P. S. Masters, “Analysis of a recombinant mouse hepatitis virus expressing a foreign gene reveals a novel aspect of coronavirus transcription,” Journal of Virology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 5148–5160, 1997.
- E. Ontiveros, L. Kuo, P. S. Masters, and S. Perlman, “Inactivation of expression of gene 4 of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM does not affect virulence in the murine CNS,” Virology, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. 230–238, 2001.
- R. Marek, M. Caruso, A. Rostami, J. B. Grinspan, and J. Das Sarma, “Magnetic cell sorting: a fast and effective method of concurrent isolation of high purity viable astrocytes and microglia from neonatal mouse brain tissue,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 108–118, 2008.
- K. S. Shindler, D. Chatterjee, K. Biswas et al., “Macrophage-mediated optic neuritis induced by retrograde axonal transport of spike gene recombinant mouse hepatitis virus,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 470–480, 2011.
- R. L. Knobler, M. Dubois-Dalq, M. V. Haspel, et al., “Selective localization of wild type and mutant mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain) antigens in CNS tissue by fluorescence, light and electron microscopy,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 81–92, 1981.
- L. P. Weiner, R. T. Johnson, and R. M. Herndon, “Viral infections and demyelinating diseases,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 288, no. 21, pp. 1103–1110, 1973.
- G. W. Simmons, W. W. Pong, R. J. Emnett et al., “Neurofibromatosis-1 heterozygosity increases microglia in a spatially and temporally restricted pattern relevant to mouse optic glioma formation and growth,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 51–62, 2011.
- E. Lavi, Q. Wang, S. R. Weiss, and N. K. Gonatas, “Syncytia formation induced by coronavirus infection is associated with fragmentation and rearrangement of the Golgi apparatus,” Virology, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 1996.
- K. Nakamichi, M. Saiki, M. Sawada et al., “Rabies virus-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways regulates expression of CXC and CC chemokine ligands in microglia,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 18, pp. 11801–11812, 2005.
- G. A. Garden, “Microglia in human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurodegeneration,” GLIA, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 240–251, 2002.
- P. Eikelenboom, C. Bate, W. A. van Gool et al., “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease,” GLIA, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 232–239, 2002.
- V. H. Perry, C. Cunningham, and D. Boche, “Atypical inflammation in the central nervous system in prion disease,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 349–354, 2002.