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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 785317, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/785317
Review Article

New Insights into the Role of the Immune Microenvironment in Breast Carcinoma

1Clinical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Avenida Dr. Fedriani s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
2Biochemistry Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Avenida Dr. Fedriani s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
3Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Avenida Dr. Fedriani s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
4Clinical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
5Statistics Department, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Dr. Fedriani s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
6Clinical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29010 Málaga, Spain
7Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (CIMA), Universidad de Navarra, Pío XII 55, 31008 Pamplona, Spain

Received 29 January 2013; Accepted 14 April 2013

Academic Editor: Arnon Nagler

Copyright © 2013 Luis de la Cruz-Merino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recently, immune edition has been recognized as a new hallmark of cancer. In this respect, some clinical trials in breast cancer have reported imppressive outcomes related to laboratory immune findings, especially in the neoadjuvant and metastatic setting. Infiltration by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and their subtypes, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC) seem bona fide prognostic and even predictive biomarkers, that will eventually be incorporated into diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms of breast cancer. In addition, the complex interaction of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules on the immune synapse and the different signals that they may exert represent another exciting field to explore. In this review we try to summarize and elucidate these new concepts and knowledge from a translational perspective focusing on breast cancer, paying special attention to those aspects that might have more significance in clinical practice and could be useful to design successful therapeutic strategies in the future.