Table 2: Sleep loss effects on immune cellular components in humans.

Sleep loss conditionSubject’s characteristicsCellsReference country

Sleep deprivation11 malesLeukocyte ↑*B lymphocytes = [73]
Brazil
2 nights19–29 yearsNeutrophil ↑**T lymphocytes =
Sleep restriction10 femalesWBC ↑**B lymphocytes = [74] Belgium
4 hours time in bedPM-RTMonocytes ↑*T lymphocytes =
3 nights
55–65 yearsNeutrophils ↑*
Sleep restriction7 females, 7 malesNK =B lymphocytes = [76]
USA
4.5 hours time in bed39–61 yearsMonocytes =T lymphocytes =
1 night
Sleep restriction8 malesNeutrophils =Lymphocytes = [77] Belgium
4 hours time in bed22–29 years
3 nights
Sleep restriction13 malesMonocytes =B lymphocytes ↑** [75] Finland
4 hours time in bed19–29 yearsNK-cells**T lymphocytes =
5 nights

The table illustrates the differences between sleep deprivation and sleep restriction upon cellular components of the immune system in humans.
Abbreviations: NK: natural killers; PM-RT: postmenopausal with replacement therapy; : increase; =: not change; : decrease; *significant differences with ; **significant differences with .