Table 1: Age-dependent differences in systemic immunity to L. monocytogenes.

EffectorRole in listeriosisNeonatal mouseNeonatal human

NeutrophilsChemotaxis?Decreased
Extracellular bacteria killing??

Resident tissue macrophagesProduction of chemokines??
Production of TNF , IL-12p70, IL-18Reduced IL-12p70Reduced IL-12p70

MonocytesChemotaxis to infection siteReducedReduced
Differentiation to TipDCs and macrophages??

Dendritic cells (DCs)Antigen presentationReduced?
Production of IL-12p70ReducedReduced

−CD8α+ DCsBacterial transport to PALS??

−TNF + iNOS + DC (TipDC)Production of TNF , iNOS??

NK cellsProduction of IFN ??

CD4+ T cellsCD8 + Priming??
Cytokine productionReducedReduced

CD8+ T cellsBystander production of IFN ??