About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 926391, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/926391
Review Article

A Review on JC Virus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

1Laboratory of Translational Research, Health Science Foundation “Ettore Sansavini”, Corso Garibaldi 11, 48022 Lugo, Italy
2Department of General and Vascular Surgery, St. Joseph Hospital, Via San Vittore 12, 20122 Milan, Italy
3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy
4Pediatric Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, IRCCS Ca’ Granda Foundation “Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico”, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy
5Laboratory of Translational Research, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Via Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy
6Clinical Institute “Città Studi”, Via Ampere 47, 20133 Milan, Italy

Received 2 August 2012; Revised 3 January 2013; Accepted 3 January 2013

Academic Editor: Hans Hellmut Hirsch

Copyright © 2013 Serena Delbue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. J. Imperiale, “The human polyomaviruses: an overview,” in Human Polyomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Perspective, K. Khalili and G. L. Stoner, Eds., chapter 5, pp. 53–71, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. B. L. Padgett, D. L. Walker, G. M. ZuRhein, R. J. Eckroade, and B. H. Dessel, “Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy,” Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7712, pp. 1257–1260, 1971. View at Scopus
  3. N. Ahsan and K. V. Shah, “Polyomaviruses: an overview,” Graft, vol. 5, pp. 9–18, 2002. View at Scopus
  4. N. Ahsan and K. V. Shah, “Polyomaviruses and human diseases,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 577, pp. 1–18, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Khalili and M. K. White, “Human demyelinating disease and the polyomavirus JCV,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 133–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Khalili, L. Del Valle, J. Otte, M. Weaver, and J. Gordon, “Human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, and its role in carcinogenesis,” Oncogene, vol. 22, no. 33, pp. 5181–5191, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. V. Raj and K. Khalili, “Transcriptional regulation: lessons from the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV,” Virology, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 283–291, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Egli, L. Infanti, A. Dumoulin et al., “Prevalence of polyomavirus BK and JC infection and replication in 400 healthy blood donors,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 6, pp. 837–846, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. T. Clayson, L. V. J. Brando, and R. W. Compans, “Release of simian virus 40 virions from epithelial cells is polarized and occurs without cell lysis,” Journal of Virology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2278–2288, 1989. View at Scopus
  10. G. Perez-Liz, L. Del Valle, A. Gentilella, S. Croul, and K. Khalili, “Detection of JC virus DNA fragments but not proteins in normal brain tissue,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 379–387, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Caldarelli-Stefano, L. Vago, E. Omodeo-Zorini et al., “Detection and typing of JC virus in autopsy brains and extraneural organs of AIDS patients and non-immunocompromised individuals,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 125–133, 1999. View at Scopus
  12. E. S. Molloy and L. H. Calabrese, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a national estimate of frequency in systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3761–3765, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Berger, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and newer biological agents,” Drug Safety, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 969–983, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. R. Berger, B. Kaszovitz, M. J. D. Post, and G. Dickinson, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a review of the literature with a report of sixteen cases,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 78–87, 1987. View at Scopus
  15. I. J. Koralnik, C. Wüthrich, X. Dang et al., “JC virus granule cell neuronopathy: a novel clinical syndrome distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 576–580, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. F. Viallard, E. Ellie, E. Lazaro, M. E. Lafon, and J. L. Pellegrin, “JC virus meningitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Lupus, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 964–966, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Blake, D. Pillay, W. Knowles, D. W. G. Brown, P. D. Griffiths, and B. Taylor, “JC virus associated meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent girl,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 956–957, 1992. View at Scopus
  18. A. Behzad-Behbahani, P. E. Klapper, P. J. Vallely, G. M. Cleator, and A. Bonington, “BKV-DNA and JCV-DNA in CSF of patients with suspected meningitis or encephalitis,” Infection, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 374–378, 2003. View at Scopus
  19. P. Fontoura, J. Vale, C. Lima, F. Scaravilli, and J. Guimarães, “Progressive myoclonic ataxia and JC virus encephalitis in an AIDS patient,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 653–656, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. C. Tallantyre, S. M. L. Paine, C. P. Sharp, J. S. Lowe, and B. Gran, “Atypical progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with an unusual JC polyomavirus mutation,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 1021–1024, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. I. Husseiny, B. Anastasi, J. Singer, and S. F. Lacey, “A comparative study of Merkel cell, BK and JC polyomavirus infections in renal transplant recipients and healthy subjects,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 137–140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. B. Drachenberg, H. H. Hirsch, J. C. Papadimitriou et al., “Polyomavirus BK versus JC replication and nephropathy in renal transplant recipients: a prospective evaluation,” Transplantation, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 323–330, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. López, C. Gutiérrez, D. Burgos et al., “Prospective study of infection and nephropathy due to BK and JC polyomavirus in 76 kidney transplant recipients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2927–2929, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Helanterä, F. Ortiz, E. Auvinen et al., “Polyomavirus BK and JC infections in well matched Finnish kidney transplant recipients,” Transplant International, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 688–693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Y. Yin, M. C. Lu, M. C. Lee, S. C. Liu, T. Y. Lin, and N. S. Lai, “A correlation between polyomavirus JC virus quantification and genotypes in renal transplantation,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Lopez, C. Gutierrez, E. Sola et al., “Does JC polyomavirus cause nephropathy in renal transplant patients?” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 2889–2891, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. H. Hu, H. Zhao, Y. P. Huang et al., “Opportunistic posttransplantation virus infections in renal transplant recipients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 3715–3719, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. E. P. Pires, C. V. Bernardino-Vallinoto, D. M. Alves et al., “Prevalence of infection by JC and BK polyomaviruses in kidney transplant recipients and patients with chronic renal disease,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 633–637, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. C. Mengelle, N. Kamar, J. M. Mansuy et al., “JC virus DNA in the peripheral blood of renal transplant patients: a 1-year prospective follow-up in France,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 132–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Taheri, F. Kafilzadeh, M. Shafa et al., “Comparison of polyomavirus (BK virus and JC viruses) viruria in renal transplant recipients with and without kidney dysfunction,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 916–922, 2011.
  31. B. K. Saundh, S. Tibble, R. Baker, K. Sasnauskas, M. Harris, and A. Hale, “Different patterns of BK and JC polyomavirus reactivation following renal transplantation,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 714–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. D. Gardner, “Implication of papovaviruses in human diseases,” in Comparative Diagnosis of Viral Disease, I. Human and Related Viruses, E. Kurstak and C. Kurstak, Eds., part A, chapter 3, pp. 41–84, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1977.
  33. T. F. Hogan, E. C. Borden, and J. A. McBain, “Human polyomavirus infections with JC virus and BK virus in renal transplant patients,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 373–378, 1980. View at Scopus
  34. S. D. Gardner, E. F. D. Mackenzie, C. Smith, and A. A. Porter, “Prospective study of the human polyomavirus BK and JC and cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 578–586, 1984. View at Scopus
  35. P. Randhawa, J. Uhrmacher, W. Pasculle et al., “A comparative study of BK and JC virus infections in organ transplant recipients,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 238–243, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Delbue, M. Ferraresso, F. Elia et al., “Investigation of polyomaviruses replication in pediatric patients with nephropathy receiving rituximab,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1464–1470, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. F. K. Baksh, S. D. Finkelstein, P. A. Swalsky, G. L. Stoner, C. F. Ryschkewitsch, and P. Randhawa, “Molecular genotyping of BK and JC viruses in human polyomavirus-associated interstitial nephritis after renal transplantation,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 354–365, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. R. R. Razonable, R. A. Brown, A. Humar, E. Covington, E. Alecock, and C. V. Paya, “A longitudinal molecular surveillance study of human polyomavirus viremia in heart, kidney, liver, and pancreas transplant patients,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 192, no. 8, pp. 1349–1354, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Kusne, R. A. Vilchez, P. Zanwar et al., “Polyomavirus JC urinary shedding in kidney and liver transplant recipients associated with reduced creatinine clearance,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 206, no. 6, pp. 875–880, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. F. Brinkert, A. Briem-Richter, C. Ilchmann, M. J. Kemper, and R. Ganschow, “Prevalence of polyomavirus viruria (JC virus/BK virus) in children following liver transplantation,” Pediatric Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Muñoz, M. Fogeda, E. Bouza, E. Verde, J. Palomo, and R. Bañares, “Prevalence of BK virus replication among recipients of solid organ transplants,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1720–1725, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. E. Doucette, X. L. Pang, K. Jackson et al., “Prospective monitoring of bk polyomavirus infection early posttransplantation in nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients,” Transplantation, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 1733–1736, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Antonsson, M. Pawlita, M. C. Feltkamp et al., “Longitudinal study of seroprevalence and serostability of the human polyomaviruses JCV and BKV in organ transplant recipients,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 327–335, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. N. Kamar, C. Mengelle, and L. Rostaing, “Incidence of JC-virus replication after rituximab therapy in solid-organ transplant patients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 244–245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. D. Thomas, R. A. Vilchez, Z. S. White et al., “A prospective longitudinal study of polyomavirus shedding in lung-transplant recipients,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 442–449, 2007. View at Scopus
  46. C. D. Crowder, K. A. Gyure, C. B. Drachenberg et al., “Successful outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant patient,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1151–1158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. K. Hix, W. E. Braun, and C. M. Isada, “Delirium in a renal transplant recipient associated with BK virus in the cerebrospinal fluid,” Transplantation, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1407–1408, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Cabrejo, M. Diop, A. Blohorn-Sense, and B. Mihout, “Progressive BK virus associated multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an immunocompromised patient treated with corticosteroids,” Revue Neurologique, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 326–330, 2005. View at Scopus
  49. V. Nickeleit, H. H. Hirsch, M. Zeiler et al., “BK-virus nephropathy in renal transplants—tubular necrosis, MHC-class II expression and rejection in a puzzling game,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 324–332, 2000. View at Scopus
  50. V. Nickeleit, H. K. Singh, and M. J. Mihatsch, “Polyomavirus nephropathy: morphology, pathophysiology, and clinical management,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 599–605, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Mengel, M. Marwedel, J. Radermacher et al., “Incidence of polyomavirus-nephropathy in renal allografts: influence of modern immunosuppressive drugs,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1190–1196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. L. Bohl, G. A. Storch, C. Ryschkewitsch et al., “Donor origin of BK virus in renal transplantation and role of HLA C7 in susceptibility to sustained BK viremia,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 2213–2221, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. H. Hirsch and J. Steiger, “Polyomavirus BK,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 611–623, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. H. Hirsch, “Polyomavirus BK nephropathy: a (re-)emerging complication in renal transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Randhawa, F. Baksh, N. Aoki, D. Tschirhart, and S. Finkelstein, “JC virus infection in allograft kidneys: analysis by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry,” Transplantation, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 1300–1303, 2001. View at Scopus
  56. A. Kazory, D. Ducloux, J. M. Chalopin, R. Angonin, B. Fontanière, and H. Moret, “The first case of JC virus allograft nephropathy,” Transplantation, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1653–1655, 2003. View at Scopus
  57. M. C. Wen, C. L. Wang, M. Wang et al., “Association of JC virus with tubulointerstitial nephritis in a renal allograft recipient,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 675–678, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Dörries and V. Ter Meulen, “Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: detection of papovavirus JC in kidney tissue,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 307–317, 1983. View at Scopus
  59. G. Kantarci, Z. Eren, A. Demiraǧ, I. Dogan, F. Çakalagaoglu, and G. Yilmaz, “JC virus-associated nephropathy in a renal transplant recipient and comparative analysis of previous cases,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 89–92, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Polo, J. L. Pérez, A. Mielnichuck, C. G. Fedele, J. Niubó, and A. Tenorio, “Prevalence and patterns of polyomavirus urinary excretion in immunocompetent adults and children,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 640–644, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Rossi, S. Delbue, R. Mazziotti et al., “Presence, quantitation and characterization of JC virus in the urine of Italian immunocompetent subjects,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 408–412, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Kitamura, Y. Yogo, T. Kunitake, K. Suzuki, A. Tajima, and K. Kawabe, “Effect of immunosuppression on the urinary excretion of BK and JC polyomaviruses in renal allograft recipients,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 1994. View at Scopus
  63. P. Randhawa, A. Vats, and R. Shapiro, “Monitoring for polyomavirus BK and JC in urine: comparison of quantitative polymerase chain reaction with urine cytology,” Transplantation, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 984–986, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. I. Binet, V. Nickeleit, H. H. Hirsch et al., “Polyomavirus disease under new immunosuppressive drugs: a cause of renal graft dysfunction and graft loss,” Transplantation, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 918–922, 1999. View at Scopus
  65. A. Behzad-Behbahani, P. E. Klapper, P. J. Vallely, G. M. Cleator, and S. H. Khoo, “Detection of BK virus and JC virus DNA in urine samples from immunocompromised (HIV-infected) and immunocompetent (HIV-non-infected) patients using polymerase chain reaction and microplate hybridisation,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 224–229, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Kazory and D. Ducloux, “Renal transplantation and polyomavirus infection: recent clinical facts and controversies,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 65–71, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. Doerries, “Human polyomavirus JC and BK persistent infection,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 577, pp. 102–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. W. A. Knowles, “Discovery and epidemiology of the human polyomaviruses BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV),” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 577, pp. 19–45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Phillips, R. Jacobs, and E. N. Ellis, “Polyoma nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant recipient,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 301–304, 2004. View at Scopus
  70. F. J. Mateen, R. Muralidharan, M. Carone et al., “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in transplant recipients,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 305–322, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. N. Kamar, O. Milioto, B. Puissant-Lubrano et al., “Incidence and predictive factors for infectious disease after rituximab therapy in kidney-transplant patients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 89–98, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Rinaldi, F. Rinaldi, P. Perini et al., “No evidence of JC virus reactivation in natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients: an 18 month follow-up study,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1345–1350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Warnke, T. Menge, H. P. Hartung et al., “Natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: what are the causal factors and can it be avoided?” Archives of Neurology, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 923–930, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. X. S. Cheng, D. L. Bohl, G. A. Storch et al., “Inhibitory interactions between BK and JC virus among kidney transplant recipients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 825–831, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. H. Hirsch, W. Knowles, M. Dickenmann et al., “Prospective study of polyomavirus type BK replication and nephropathy in renal-transplant recipients,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 7, pp. 488–496, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus