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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 967581, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/967581
Review Article

JC Polyomavirus (JCV) and Monoclonal Antibodies: Friends or Potential Foes?

1Microbiology and Virology Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
2Department of Aging Intervention, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan

Received 10 May 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013

Academic Editor: Roberto Burioni

Copyright © 2013 Roberta Antonia Diotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), observed in immunodeficient patients and caused by JC virus ((JCV), also called JC polyomavirus (JCPyV)). After the HIV pandemic and the introduction of immunomodulatory therapy, the PML incidence significantly increased. The correlation between the use of natalizumab, a drug used in multiple sclerosis (MS), and the PML development of particular relevance. The high incidence of PML in natalizumab-treated patients has highlighted the importance of two factors: the need of PML risk stratification among natalizumab-treated patients and the need of effective therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss these two needs under the light of the major viral models of PML etiopathogenesis.