About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 967581, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/967581
Review Article

JC Polyomavirus (JCV) and Monoclonal Antibodies: Friends or Potential Foes?

1Microbiology and Virology Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
2Department of Aging Intervention, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan

Received 10 May 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013

Academic Editor: Roberto Burioni

Copyright © 2013 Roberta Antonia Diotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K.-E. Åström, E. L. Mancall, and E. P. Richardson Jr., “Progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy; a hitherto unrecognized complication of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease,” Brain, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 93–111, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. M. ZuRhein and S.-M. Chou, “Particles resembling papova viruses in human cerebral demyelinating disease,” Science, vol. 148, no. 3676, pp. 1477–1479, 1965. View at Scopus
  3. B. L. Padgett, D. L. Walker, G. M. ZuRhein, R. J. Eckroade, and B. H. Dessel, “Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7712, pp. 1257–1260, 1971. View at Scopus
  4. K. R. Carson, D. Focosi, E. O. Major et al., “Monoclonal antibody-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab, and efalizumab: a review from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 816–824, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. S. Hogg, M. V. O'Shaughnessy, N. Gataric et al., “Decline in deaths from AIDS due to new antiretrovirals,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9061, article 1294, 1997. View at Scopus
  6. F. Gray, F. Chrétien, A. V. Vallat-Decouvelaere, and F. Scaravilli, “The changing pattern of HIV neuropathology in the HAART Era,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 429–440, 2003. View at Scopus
  7. A. D'Arminio Monforte, P. Cinque, A. Mocroft et al., “Changing incidence of central nervous system diseases in the EuroSIDA cohort,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 320–328, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. K. Petito, E.-S. Cho, and W. Lemann, “Neuropathology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): an autopsy review,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 635–646, 1986. View at Scopus
  9. C. D. Crowder, K. A. Gyure, C. B. Drachenberg et al., “Successful outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant patient,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1151–1158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Shitrit, N. Lev, A. Bar-Gil-Shitrit, and M. R. Kramer, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in transplant recipients,” Transplant International, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 658–665, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. B. Clifford, B. Ances, C. Costello et al., “Rituximab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rheumatoid arthritis,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 1156–1164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. S. Molloy and L. H. Calabrese, “Therapy: targeted but not trouble-free: efalizumab and PML,” Nature reviews. Rheumatology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 418–419, 2009. View at Scopus
  13. A. Mountain and J. R. Adair, “Engineering antibodies for therapy,” Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews, vol. 10, pp. 1–142, 1992. View at Scopus
  14. M. W. Ferenczy, L. J. Marshall, C. D. Nelson et al., “Molecular biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 471–506.
  15. P. Vermersch, L. Kappos, R. Gold et al., “Clinical outcomes of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Neurology, vol. 76, no. 20, pp. 1697–1704, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Compston, “Making progress on the natural history of multiple sclerosis,” Brain, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 561–563, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Confavreux and S. Vukusic, “Age at disability milestones in multiple sclerosis,” Brain, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 595–605, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. M. Goldenberg, “Multiple sclerosis review,” P & T, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 175–184, 2012. View at Scopus
  19. Ö. Yaldizli and N. Putzki, “Natalizumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis,” Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 115–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Houff and J. R. Berger, “Reply to “'Thinking without thinking' about natalizumab and PML”,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 264, no. 1-2, pp. 198–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. U. H. von Andrian and B. Engelhardt, “α4 integrins as therapeutic targets in autoimmune disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 1, pp. 68–72, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. J. Marshall, L. Dunham, and E. O. Major, “Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 3042–3052, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Rinaldi, F. Rinaldi, P. Perini et al., “No evidence of JC virus reactivation in natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients: an 18 month follow-up study,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1345–1350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Bloomgren, S. Richman, C. Hotermans et al., “Risk of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 20, pp. 1870–1880, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. R. A. Diotti, G. A. Sautto, L. Solforosi, N. Mancini, M. Clementi, and R. Burioni, “Neutralization activity and kinetics of two broad-range human monoclonal IgG1 derived from recombinant Fab fragments and directed against Hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein,” The New Microbiologica, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 475–479, 2012.
  26. R. Johne, C. B. Buck, T. Allander et al., “Taxonomical developments in the family Polyomaviridae,” Archives of Virology, vol. 156, no. 9, pp. 1627–1634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Eash, K. Manley, M. Gasparovic, W. Querbes, and W. J. Atwood, “The human polyomaviruses,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 63, no. 7-8, pp. 865–876, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. D. Gardner, A. M. Field, D. V. Coleman, and B. Hulme, “New human papovavirus (B.K.) isolated from urine after renal transplantation,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7712, pp. 1253–1257, 1971. View at Scopus
  29. C. Sugimoto, M. Hasegawa, A. Kato et al., “Evolution of human polyomavirus JC: implications for the population history of humans,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 285–297, 2002. View at Scopus
  30. J. D. Martin, D. M. King, J. M. Slauch, and R. J. Frisque, “Differences in regulatory sequences of naturally occurring JC virus variants,” Journal of Virology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 306–311, 1985. View at Scopus
  31. C. E. Reid, H. Li, G. Sur et al., “Sequencing and analysis of JC virus DNA from natalizumab-treated PML patients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 237–244, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. S. Tan, L. C. Ellis, C. Wüthrich et al., “JC virus latency in the brain and extraneural organs of patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Journal of Virology, vol. 84, no. 18, pp. 9200–9209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Prins and R. J. Frisque, “JC virus T' proteins encoded by alternatively spliced early mRNAs enhance T antigen-mediated viral DNA replication in human cells,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 250–264, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. del Valle, M. K. White, and K. Khalili, “Potential mechanisms of the human polyomavirus JC in neural oncogenesis,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 729–740, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Ishaq and G. L. Stoner, “Differential expression of mRNAs for JC virus large and small tumor antigens in brain tissues from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients with and without AIDS,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 17, pp. 8283–8287, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Suzuki, Y. Orba, Y. Okada et al., “The human polyoma JC virus agnoprotein acts as a viroporin,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e1000801, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Safak, R. Barrucco, A. Darbinyan, Y. Okada, K. Nagashima, and K. Khalili, “Interaction of JC virus Agno protein with T antigen modulates transcription and replication of the viral genome in glial cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 1476–1486, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Geiger, D. Andritschke, S. Friebe et al., “BAP31 and BiP are essential for dislocation of SV40 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1305–1314, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Inoue and B. Tsai, “A large and intact viral particle penetrates the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to reach the cytosol,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e1002037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Nakanishi, D. Shum, H. Morioka, E. Otsuka, and H. Kasamatsu, “Interaction of the Vp3 nuclear localization signal with the importin α2/β heterodimer directs nuclear entry of infecting simian virus 40,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 18, pp. 9368–9377, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Kamen, J. Favaloro, and J. Parker, “Topography of the three late mRNA's of polyoma virus which encode the virion proteins,” Journal of Virology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 637–651, 1980. View at Scopus
  42. T. Stehle and S. C. Harrison, “High-resolution structure of a polyomavirus VP1-oligosaccharide complex: implications for assembly and receptor binding,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 16, no. 16, pp. 5139–5148, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Gorelik, C. Reid, M. Testa et al., “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) development is associated with mutations in JC virus capsid protein VP1 that change its receptor specificity,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 103–114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. R. Sunyaev, A. Lugovskoy, K. Simon, and L. Gorelik, “Adaptive mutations in the JC virus protein capsid are associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML),” PLoS Genetics, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e1000368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Delbue, E. Branchetti, S. Bertolacci et al., “JC virus VP1 loop-specific polymorphisms are associated with favorable prognosis for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. S. Dugan, S. Eash, and W. J. Atwood, “An N-linked glycoprotein with α(2,3)-linked sialic acid is a receptor for BK virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 22, pp. 14442–14445, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. U. Neu, M. S. Maginnis, A. S. Palma et al., “Structure-function analysis of the human JC polyomavirus establishes the LSTc pentasaccharide as a functional receptor motif,” Cell Host & Microbe, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 309–319, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. F. Elphick, W. Querbes, J. A. Jordan et al., “The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5700, pp. 1380–1383, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Wei, C. K. Liu, and W. J. Atwood, “JC Virus binds to primary human glial cells, tonsillar stromal cells, and B-lymphocytes, but not to T lymphocytes,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 127–136, 2000. View at Scopus
  50. G. V. Raj and K. Khalili, “Transcriptional regulation: lessons from the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV,” Virology, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 283–291, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. T. Pho, A. Ashok, and W. J. Atwood, “JC virus enters human glial cells by clathrin-dependent receptor- mediated endocytosis,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 2288–2292, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. Querbes, A. Benmerah, D. Tosoni, P. P. Di Fiore, and W. J. Atwood, “A JC virus-induced signal is required for infection of glial cells by a clathrin- and eps15-dependent pathway,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 250–256, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Feigenbaum, K. Khalili, E. Major, and G. Khoury, “Regulation of the host range of human papovavirus JCV,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 3695–3698, 1987. View at Scopus
  54. E. O. Major, “History and current concepts in the pathogenesis of PML,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 78, supplement 2, pp. S3–S7, 2011. View at Scopus
  55. E. T. Clayson, L. V. J. Brando, and R. W. Compans, “Release of simian virus 40 virions from epithelial cells is polarized and occurs without cell lysis,” Journal of Virology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2278–2288, 1989. View at Scopus
  56. Y. Yogo, T. Kitamura, C. Sugimoto et al., “Isolation of a possible archetypal JC virus DNA sequence from nonimmunocompromised individuals,” Journal of Virology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 3139–3143, 1990. View at Scopus
  57. B. J. Brew, N. W. S. Davies, P. Cinque, D. B. Clifford, and A. Nath, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 667–679, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. J. Kepes, S. M. Chou, and L. W. Price Jr., “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with 10 yr survival in a patient with nontropical sprue: report of a case with unusual light and electron microscopic features,” Neurology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1006–1012, 1975. View at Scopus
  59. J. R. Berger, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and newer biological agents,” Drug Safety, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 969–983, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. R. Berger, B. Kaszovitz, M. J. D. Post, and G. Dickinson, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a review of the literature with a report of sixteen cases,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 78–87, 1987. View at Scopus
  61. P. Cinque, P. Scarpellini, L. Vago, A. Linde, and A. Lazzarin, “Diagnosis of central nervous system complications in HIV-infected patients: cerebrospinal fluid analysis by the polymerase chain reaction,” AIDS, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. O. Major, K. Amemiya, C. S. Tornatore, S. A. Houff, and J. R. Berger, “Pathogenesis and molecular biology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 49–73, 1992. View at Scopus
  63. W. J. Atwood, K. Amemiya, R. Traub, J. Harms, and E. O. Major, “Interaction of the human polyomavirus, JCV, with human B-lymphocytes,” Virology, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 716–723, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. O. Major, K. Amemiya, G. Elder, and S. A. Houff, “Glial cells of the human developing brain and B cells of the immune system share a common DNA binding factor for recognition of the regulatory sequences of the human polyomavirus, JCV,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 461–471, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. A. Houff, E. O. Major, D. A. Katz et al., “Involvement of JC virus-infected mononuclear cells from the bone marrow and spleen in the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 318, no. 5, pp. 301–305, 1988. View at Scopus
  66. E. Tavazzi, M. K. White, and K. Khalili, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: clinical and molecular aspects,” Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. J. Marriott, M. D. O'Brien, I. C. K. MacKenzie, and I. Janota, “Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: remission with cytarabine,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 205–209, 1975. View at Scopus
  68. E. O. Major, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients on immunomodulatory therapies,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 35–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Haider, D. Nafziger, J. A. Gutierrez, I. Brar, N. Mateo, and J. Fogle, “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and idiopathic CD4+lymphocytopenia: a case report and review of reported cases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. E20–E22, 2000. View at Scopus
  70. H. Albrecht, C. Hoffmann, O. Degen et al., “Highly active antiretroviral therapy significantly improves the prognosis of patients with HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” AIDS, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1149–1154, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. F. N. Engsig, A.-B. E. Hansen, L. H. Omland et al., “Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. R. Perkins, C. Ryschkewitsch, J. C. Liebner et al., “Changes in JC virus-specific T cell responses during natalizumab treatment and in natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e1003014, 2012.
  73. H. Lindå, A. von Heijne, E. O. Major et al., “Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab monotherapy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 11, pp. 1081–1087, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. Weber, C. Trebst, S. Frye et al., “Analysis of the systemic and intrathecal humoral immune response in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 250–254, 1997. View at Scopus
  75. N. Clementi, N. Mancini, L. Solforosi, M. Castelli, M. Clementi, and R. Burioni, “Phage display-based strategies for cloning and optimization of monoclonal antibodies directed against human pathogens,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 8273–8292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. G. Sautto, N. Mancini, R. A. Diotti, L. Solforosi, M. Clementi, and R. Burioni, “Anti-hepatitis C virus E2 (HCV/E2) glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and neutralization interference,” Antiviral Research, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 82–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. R. Burioni, N. Mancini, S. Carletti et al., “Cross-reactive pseudovirus-neutralizing anti-envelope antibodies coexist with antibodies devoid of such activity in persistent hepatitis C virus infection,” Virology, vol. 327, no. 2, pp. 242–248, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Burioni, Y. Matsuura, N. Mancini et al., “Diverging effects of human recombinant anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody fragments derived from a single patient on the infectivity of a vesicular stomatitis virus/HCV pseudotype,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 22, pp. 11775–11779, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Burioni, N. Mancini, D. de Marco et al., “Anti-HIV-1 response elicited in rabbits by anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies mimicking the CD4-binding site,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 10, article e3423, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Mancini, R. A. Diotti, M. Perotti et al., “Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting epitopes conserved in all viral genotypes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 12, article e8254, 2009. View at Scopus
  81. G. A. Sautto, R. A. Diotti, and M. Clementi, “New therapeutic options for HCV infection in the monoclonal antibody era,” The New Microbiologica, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 387–397, 2012.
  82. L. Solforosi, N. Mancini, F. Canducci et al., “A phage display vector optimized for the generation of human antibody combinatorial libraries and the molecular cloning of monoclonal antibody fragments,” The New Microbiologica, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 289–294, 2012.
  83. M. Perotti, N. Mancini, R. A. Diotti et al., “Identification of a broadly cross-reacting and neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis C virus E2 protein,” Journal of Virology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 1047–1052, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Nicasio, G. Sautto, N. Clementi et al., “Neutralization interfering antibodies: a “novel” example of humoral immune dysfunction facilitating viral escape?” Viruses, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1731–1752, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. D. B. Clifford, C. Yiannoutsos, M. Glicksman et al., “Haart improves prognosis in HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 623–625, 1999. View at Scopus
  86. B. S. Khatri, K. Byrne, M. Kawakami et al., “Internal friction of single polypeptide chains at high stretch,” Faraday Discussions, vol. 139, pp. 35–51, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H. C. Lehmann, H.-P. Hartung, G. R. Hetzel, O. Stüve, and B. C. Kieseier, “Plasma exchange in neuroimmunological disorders: part 1: rationale and treatment of inflammatory central nervous system disorders,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 930–935, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. C. Lehmann, H.-P. Hartung, G. R. Hetzel, O. Stüve, and B. C. Kieseier, “Plasma exchange in neuroimmunological disorders: part 2. Treatment of neuromuscular disorders,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1066–1071, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. M. Marra, N. Rajicic, D. E. Barker et al., “A pilot study of cidofovir for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 1791–1797, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. D. Hall, U. Dafni, D. Simpson et al., “Failure of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 19, pp. 1345–1351, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. F. Gray, C. Bazille, H. Adle-Biassette, J. Mikol, A. Moulignier, and F. Scaravilli, “Central nervous system immune reconstitution disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 16–22, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. Kappos, D. Bates, H.-P. Hartung et al., “Natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis: recommendations for patient selection and monitoring,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 431–441, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Venkataramana, C. A. Pardo, J. C. McArthur et al., “Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the CNS of HIV-infected patients,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 383–388, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. Aly, S. Yousef, S. Schippling et al., “Central role of JC virus-specific CD4+ lymphocytes in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome,” Brain, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 2687–2702, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Vendrely, B. Bienvenu, J. Gasnault, J. B. Thiebault, D. Salmon, and F. Gray, “Fulminant inflammatory leukoencephalopathy associated with HAART-induced immune restoration in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 449–455, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. K. Tan, R. Roda, L. Ostrow, J. McArthur, and A. Nath, “PML-IRIS in patients with HIV infection: clinical manifestations and treatment with steroids,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 17, pp. 1458–1464, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. Baum, A. Ashok, G. Gee et al., “Early events in the life cycle of JC virus as potential therapeutics targets for the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 9, supplement 1, pp. 32–37, 2003. View at Scopus
  98. J. Gasnault, P. Kousignian, M. Kahraman et al., “Cidofovir in AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a monocenter observational study with clinical and JC virus load monitoring,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 375–381, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. de Luca, M. L. Giancola, A. Ammassari et al., “Potent anti-retroviral therapy with or without cidofovir for AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: extended follow-up of an observational study,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 364–368, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Z.-G. Jiang, J. Cohen, L. J. Marshall, and E. O. Major, “Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (CMX001) suppresses JC virus replication in human fetal brain SVG cell cultures,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 4723–4732, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. D. A. Kerr, C.-F. Chang, J. Gordon, M.-A. Bjornsti, and K. Khalili, “Inhibition of human neurotropic virus (JCV) DNA replication in glial cells by camptothecin,” Virology, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 612–618, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. Balduzzi, G. Lucchini, H. H. Hirsch et al., “Polyomavirus JC-targeted T-cell therapy for progressive multiple leukoencephalopathy in a hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 987–992, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. W. J. Atwood, “A combination of low-dose chlorpromazine and neutralizing antibodies inhibits the spread of JC virus (JCV) in a tissue culture model: implications for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 307–310, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. N. Clementi, D. de Marco, N. Mancini et al., “A human monoclonal antibody with neutralizing activity against highly divergent influenza subtypes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 12, article e28001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. Burioni, R. A. Williamson, P. P. Sanna, F. E. Bloom, and D. R. Burton, “Recombinant human Fab to glycoprotein D neutralizes infectivity and prevents cell-to-cell transmission of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 in vitro,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 355–359, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. Burioni, P. Plaisant, A. Manzin et al., “Dissection of human humoral immune response against hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein by repertoire cloning and generation of recombinant Fab fragments,” Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 810–814, 1998. View at Scopus
  107. R. Burioni, M. Perotti, N. Mancini, and M. Clementi, “Perspectives for the utilization of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies as anti-HCV drugs,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 299–300, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. Burioni, F. Canducci, N. Mancini et al., “Monoclonal antibodies isolated from human B cells neutralize a broad range of H1 subtype influenza A viruses including swine-origin Influenza virus (S-OIV),” Virology, vol. 399, no. 1, pp. 144–152, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. P. K. Chandra, S. Hazari, B. Poat et al., “Intracytoplasmic stable expression of IgG1 antibody targeting NS3 helicase inhibits replication of highly efficient hepatitis C Virus 2a clone,” Virology Journal, vol. 7, article 118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. de Marco, N. Clementi, N. Mancini et al., “A non-VH1-69 heterosubtypic neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects mice against H1N1 and H5N1 viruses,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 4, article e34415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus