Journal of Immunology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Dose of Incorporated Immunodominant Antigen in Recombinant BCG Impacts Modestly on Th1 Immune Response and Protective Efficiency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:32:57 +0000 One approach for improving BCG efficacy is to utilize BCG as vehicle to develop recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains overexpressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) antigens. Also expression level of a candidate antigen should impact the final T cell responses conferred by rBCG. In this study, based on our previously constructed differential expression system, we developed two rBCG strains overexpressing M. tb chimeric antigen Ag856A2 (coding a recombinant ag85a with 2 copies of esat-6 inserted at Acc I site of ag85a) at differential levels under the control of the subtly modified furA promoters. These two rBCG strains were used to vaccinate C57BL/6 mice and exploit dose of incorporated antigen in rBCG to optimize immune response and protective efficiency against M. tb challenge in mouse model. The results showed that rBCG strains overexpressing Ag856A2 at differential levels induced different antigen-specific IFN-γ production and comparable number of M. tb-specific CD4 T cells expressing IL-2. M. tb challenge experiment showed that rBCG strains afforded enhanced but comparable immune protection characterized by reduced bacillary load, lung pathology, and inflammation. These results suggested that the dose of antigens incorporated in rBCG can impact T cell immune responses but imposed no significantly differential protective efficacies. Hui Ma, Kang Wu, Fang Liu, Hua Yang, Han Kang, Ning-Ning Chen, Qin Yuan, Wen-Jiang Zhou, and Xiao-Yong Fan Copyright © 2014 Hui Ma et al. All rights reserved. Airborne Biogenic Particles in the Snow of the Cities of the Russian Far East as Potential Allergic Compounds Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:36:18 +0000 This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm–1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010–2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms. Kirill S. Golokhvast Copyright © 2014 Kirill S. Golokhvast. All rights reserved. Exploring the Innate Immunological Response of an Alternative Nonhuman Primate Model of Infectious Disease; the Common Marmoset Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease. M. Nelson and M. Loveday Copyright © 2014 Dstl. All rights reserved. Control of Intracellular Francisella tularensis by Different Cell Types and the Role of Nitric Oxide Mon, 21 Jul 2014 06:17:57 +0000 Reactive nitrogen is critical for the clearance of Francisella tularensis infections. Here we assess the role of nitric oxide in control of intracellular infections in two murine macrophage cell lines of different provenance: the alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, and the widely used peritoneal macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Cells were infected with the highly virulent Schu S4 strain or with the avirulent live vaccine strain (LVS) with and without stimuli. Compared to MH-S cells, J774A.1 cells were unresponsive to stimulation and were able to control the intracellular replication of LVS bacteria, but not of Schu S4. In MH-S cells, Schu S4 demonstrated control over cellular NO production. Despite this, MH-S cells stimulated with LPS or LPS and IFN- were able to control intracellular Schu S4 numbers. However, only stimulation with LPS induced significant cellular NO production. Combined stimulation with LPS and IFN- produced a significant reduction in intracellular bacteria that occurred whether high levels of NO were produced or not, indicating that NO secretion is not the only defensive cellular mechanism operating in virulent Francisella infections. Understanding how F. tularensis interacts with host macrophages will help in the rational design of new and effective therapies. Sarah L. Newstead, Amanda J. Gates, M. Gillian Hartley, Caroline A. Rowland, E. Diane Williamson, and Roman A. Lukaszewski Copyright © 2014 Dstl. All rights reserved. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer. Jérôme Lacombe, Alain Mangé, and Jérôme Solassol Copyright © 2014 Jérôme Lacombe et al. All rights reserved. HLA-G as a Tolerogenic Molecule in Transplantation and Pregnancy Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 HLA-G is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule. In allogeneic situations such as pregnancy or allograft transplantation, the expression of HLA-G has been related to a better acceptance of the fetus or the allograft. Thus, it seems that HLA-G is crucially involved in mechanisms shaping an allogeneic immune response into tolerance. In this contribution we focus on (i) how HLA-G is involved in transplantation and human reproduction, (ii) how HLA-G is regulated by genetic and microenvironmental factors, and (iii) how HLA-G can offer novel perspectives with respect to therapy. Vera Rebmann, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Bettina Wagner, and Peter A. Horn Copyright © 2014 Vera Rebmann et al. All rights reserved. T CD3+CD8+ Lymphocytes Are More Susceptible for Apoptosis in the First Trimester of Normal Human Pregnancy Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Aims. Normal human pregnancy is a complex process of many immunoregulatory mechanisms which protect fetus from the activation of the maternal immune system. The aim of the study was to investigate the apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of normal pregnant patients and healthy nonpregnant women. Methods. Sixty pregnant women and 17 nonpregnant women were included in the study. Lymphocytes were isolated and labeled with anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Apoptosis was detected by CMXRos staining and analyzed using the flow cytometric method. Results. We found significantly higher apoptosis of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood of pregnant patients when compared to healthy nonpregnant women. The percentage of apoptotic T CD3+CD8+ cells in the first trimester was significantly higher when compared to the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly lower in the first trimester when compared to other trimesters of pregnancy and to both of the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusions. The higher apoptosis of T CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and the lower ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic cells in the first trimester of normal pregnancy may suggest a higher susceptibility of T CD3+CD8+ cells for apoptosis as a protective mechanism at the early stage of pregnancy. Dorota Darmochwal-Kolarz, Ewelina Sobczak, Piotr Pozarowski, Bogdan Kolarz, Jacek Rolinski, and Jan Oleszczuk Copyright © 2014 Dorota Darmochwal-Kolarz et al. All rights reserved. Clinical, Laboratory, and Therapeutic Analyses of 21 Patients with Neonatal Thrombosis and Antiphospholipid Antibodies: A Literature Review Thu, 17 Jul 2014 10:26:28 +0000 Objectives. A review of the literature reports neonatal thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibodies cases through a retrospective study that focuses on the pathogenesis and main clinical and laboratory manifestations of this disease. Methods. The case reports were selected from PubMed. The keywords used to search were neonatal, antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombosis, and antiphospholipid antibodies. References that were published from 1987 to 2013 were reviewed. Results. Twenty-one cases of neonatal thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibodies were identified. Ten children were born preterm (before 37 weeks). Arterial involvement (17/21) was predominant, of which stroke (12/17) was the most prevalent clinical manifestation. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies were predominant (13/21) in the antiphospholipid antibody profiles. Treatments were based on the use of symptomatics such as antiepileptics (8/21), and 6/21 patients received heparin. There were 4 deaths (4/21); otherwise, the children recovered well, especially the neonates who suffered from strokes (9/12). Conclusion. Neonatal thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibodies are rare. The development of thrombotic manifestations in neonates seems not to be associated exclusively with the aPL, but their etiology may be linked to pre- and perinatal events. We noted good therapeutic responses, especially in stroke patients, who presented with favorable outcomes in 82% of the cases. Marcus Vinicius da Costa Peixoto, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho, and Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues Copyright © 2014 Marcus Vinicius da Costa Peixoto et al. All rights reserved. Tribbles 3 Regulates the Fibrosis Cytokine TGF-β1 through ERK1/2-MAPK Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Nephropathy Wed, 16 Jul 2014 16:21:47 +0000 To reveal the expression and possible role of tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) in the incidence of type 2 diabetic nephropathy, we used immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to study the expression of TRB3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and collagen type IV in kidneys of db/db diabetic mice and in murine renal mesangial cells stimulated with high glucose. The expression of TRB3, TGF-β1, and collagen type IV was increased in kidneys of db/db diabetic mice. TGF-β1 and collagen type IV regulated by high glucose through ERK1/2 MAPK were downregulated by silencing TRB3 in renal mesangial cells. TRB3 may be involved in diabetic nephropathy by regulating the fibrosis cytokine TGF-β1 and collagen type IV through the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. Luwei Zhang, Jinhang Zhang, Xinnong Liu, Shengli Liu, and Jun Tian Copyright © 2014 Luwei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin Wed, 16 Jul 2014 07:43:36 +0000 Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD) is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2 g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4). Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with NCT02068482. Rossella Cianci, Simona Frosali, Danilo Pagliari, Paola Cesaro, Lucio Petruzziello, Fabio Casciano, Raffaele Landolfi, Guido Costamagna, and Franco Pandolfi Copyright © 2014 Rossella Cianci et al. All rights reserved. SOCS1 and Regulation of Regulatory T Cells Plasticity Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:01:38 +0000 Several reports have suggested that natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) lose Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression and suppression activity under certain inflammatory conditions. Treg plasticity has been studied because it may be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Some studies showed that a minor uncommitted Foxp3+ T cell population, which lacks hypomethylation at Treg-specific demethylation regions (TSDRs), may convert to effector/helper T cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, has been reported to play an important role in Treg cell integrity and function by protecting the cells from excessive inflammatory cytokines. In this review, we discuss Treg plasticity and maintenance of suppression functions in both physiological and pathological settings. In addition, we discuss molecular mechanisms of maintaining Treg plasticity by SOCS1 and other molecules. Such information will be useful for therapy of autoimmune diseases and reinforcement of antitumor immunity. Reiko Takahashi and Akihiko Yoshimura Copyright © 2014 Reiko Takahashi and Akihiko Yoshimura. All rights reserved. The Relevance of HLA Sequencing in Population Genetics Studies Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently being adapted by different biotechnological platforms to the standard typing method for HLA polymorphism, the huge diversity of which makes this initiative particularly challenging. Boosting the molecular characterization of the HLA genes through efficient, rapid, and low-cost technologies is expected to amplify the success of tissue transplantation by enabling us to find donor-recipient matching for rare phenotypes. But the application of NGS technologies to the molecular mapping of the MHC region also anticipates essential changes in population genetic studies. Huge amounts of HLA sequence data will be available in the next years for different populations, with the potential to change our understanding of HLA variation in humans. In this review, we first explain how HLA sequencing allows a better assessment of the HLA diversity in human populations, taking also into account the methodological difficulties it introduces at the statistical level; secondly, we show how analyzing HLA sequence variation may improve our comprehension of population genetic relationships by facilitating the identification of demographic events that marked human evolution; finally, we discuss the interest of both HLA and genome-wide sequencing and genotyping in detecting functionally significant SNPs in the MHC region, the latter having also contributed to the makeup of the HLA molecular diversity observed today. Alicia Sanchez-Mazas and Diogo Meyer Copyright © 2014 Alicia Sanchez-Mazas and Diogo Meyer. All rights reserved. Cellular Factors Targeting APCs to Modulate Adaptive T Cell Immunity Mon, 14 Jul 2014 11:29:04 +0000 The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity. Anabelle Visperas, Jeongsu Do, and Booki Min Copyright © 2014 Anabelle Visperas et al. All rights reserved. Activation Effects of Polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes Mycorrhizae on the T Lymphocyte Immune Function Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:54:09 +0000 Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae have increasingly been produced with increasing of F. velutipes production. A mouse model was thus used to examine potential effect of F. velutipes mycorrhizae on the immune function. Fifty female Wistar mice (5-weeks-old) weighed 15–20 g were randomly allocated into five groups. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae were treated with mice and mice spleen lymphocytes. The levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocyte, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-) were determined. The results showed that the proportions of CD3+, and CD4+ T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+, and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-a were significantly increased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae, while the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocyte was decreased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae-dose dependent manner. Our findings indicated that a long term exposure of polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae could activate the T lymphocyte immune function. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae was expected to develop into the immune health products. Zheng-Fei Yan, Nai-Xu Liu, Xin-Xin Mao, Yu Li, and Chang-Tian Li Copyright © 2014 Zheng-Fei Yan et al. All rights reserved. IL-6 as a Druggable Target in Psoriasis: Focus on Pustular Variants Sun, 13 Jul 2014 08:25:49 +0000 Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) is a cutaneous inflammatory disorder stemming from abnormal, persistent activation of the interleukin- (IL-)23/Th17 axis. Pustular psoriasis (PP) is a clinicopathological variant of psoriasis, histopathologically defined by the predominance of intraepidermal collections of neutrophils. Although PP pathogenesis is thought to largely follow that of (PV), recent evidences point to a more central role for IL-1, IL-36, and IL-6 in the development of PP. We review the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of PV and PP, focusing on its cross-talk with cytokines of the IL-23/Th17 axis. Clinical inhibitors of IL-6 signaling, including tocilizumab, have shown significant effectiveness in the treatment of several inflammatory rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis; accordingly, anti-IL-6 agents may potentially represent future promising therapies for the treatment of PP. Andrea Saggini, Sergio Chimenti, and Andrea Chiricozzi Copyright © 2014 Andrea Saggini et al. All rights reserved. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome Sun, 13 Jul 2014 07:56:18 +0000 A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. Felipe Freire da Silva, Roger Abramino Levy, and Jozélio Freire de Carvalho Copyright © 2014 Felipe Freire da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Potential and Limitation of HLA-Based Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cell Therapy Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:53:33 +0000 Great hopes have been placed on human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells for therapy. Tissues or organs derived from hPS cells could be the best solution to cure many different human diseases, especially those who do not respond to standard medication or drugs, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, or diabetes. The origin of hPS is critical and the idea of creating a bank of well-characterized hPS cells has emerged, like the one that already exists for cord blood. However, the main obstacle in transplantation is the rejection of tissues or organ by the receiver, due to the three main immunological barriers: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the ABO blood group, and minor antigens. The problem could be circumvented by using autologous stem cells, like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, derived directly from the patient. But iPS cells have limitations, especially regarding the disease of the recipient and possible difficulties to handle or prepare autologous iPS cells. Finally, reaching standards of good clinical or manufacturing practices could be challenging. That is why well-characterized and universal hPS cells could be a better solution. In this review, we will discuss the interest and the feasibility to establish hPS cells bank, as well as some economics and ethical issues. Casimir de Rham and Jean Villard Copyright © 2014 Casimir de Rham and Jean Villard. All rights reserved. Glioma-Associated Antigen HEATR1 Induces Functional Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Patients with Glioma Wed, 09 Jul 2014 07:33:26 +0000 A2B5+ glioblastoma (GBM) cells have glioma stem-like cell (GSC) properties that are crucial to chemotherapy resistance and GBM relapse. T-cell-based antigens derived from A2B5+ GBM cells provide important information for immunotherapy. Here, we show that HEAT repeat containing 1 (HEATR1) expression in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in control brain tissues. Furthermore, HEATR1 expression in A2B5+ U87 cells was higher than that in A2B5−U87 cells (). Six peptides of HEATR1 presented by HLA-A02 were selected for testing of their ability to induce T-cell responses in patients with GBM. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors () and patients with glioma () were stimulated with the peptide mixture, eight patients with malignant gliomas had positive reactivity with a significantly increased number of responding T-cells. The peptides HEATR1682–690, HEATR11126–1134, and HEATR1757–765 had high affinity for binding to HLA-A02:01 and a strong capacity to induce CTL response. CTLs against HEATR1 peptides were capable of recognizing and lysing GBM cells and GSCs. These data are the first to demonstrate that HEATR1 could induce specific CTL responses targeting both GBM cells and GSCs, implicating that HEATR1 peptide-based immunotherapy could be a novel promising strategy for treating patients with GBM. Zhe Bao Wu, Chao Qiu, An Li Zhang, Lin Cai, Shao Jian Lin, Yu Yao, Qi Sheng Tang, Ming Xu, Wei Hua, Yi Wei Chu, Ying Mao, Jian Hong Zhu, Jianqing Xu, and Liang Fu Zhou Copyright © 2014 Zhe Bao Wu et al. All rights reserved. Significance of Persistent Inflammation in Respiratory Disorders Induced by Nanoparticles Mon, 07 Jul 2014 12:45:31 +0000 Pulmonary inflammation, especially persistent inflammation, has been found to play a key role in respiratory disorders induced by nanoparticles in animal models. In inhalation studies and instillation studies of nanomaterials, persistent inflammation is composed of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, and its pathogenesis is related to chemokines such as the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) family and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 and oxidant stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). DNA damages occur chemically or physically by nanomaterials. Chemical and physical damage are associated with point mutation by free radicals and double strand brake, respectively. The failure of DNA repair and accumulation of mutations might occur when inflammation is prolonged, and finally normal cells could become malignant. These free radicals can not only damage cells but also induce signaling molecules containing immunoreaction. Nanoparticles and asbestos also induce the production of free radicals. In allergic responses, nanoparticles act as Th2 adjuvants to activate Th2 immune responses such as activation of eosinophil and induction of IgE. Taken together, the presence of persistent inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases induced by nanomaterials. Yasuo Morimoto, Hiroto Izumi, and Etsushi Kuroda Copyright © 2014 Yasuo Morimoto et al. All rights reserved. Autoimmune Disease Genetics 2013 Sun, 06 Jul 2014 11:26:59 +0000 Timothy B. Niewold, George N. Goulielmos, and Shervin Assassi Copyright © 2014 Timothy B. Niewold et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Primate Humoral Passive Transfer in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague Is Mouse Strain-Dependent Sun, 06 Jul 2014 09:59:41 +0000 New vaccines against biodefense-related and emerging pathogens are being prepared for licensure using the US Federal Drug Administration’s “Animal Rule.” This allows licensure of drugs and vaccines using protection data generated in animal models. A new acellular plague vaccine composed of two separate recombinant proteins (rF1 and rV) has been developed and assessed for immunogenicity in humans. Using serum obtained from human volunteers immunised with various doses of this vaccine and from immunised cynomolgus macaques, we assessed the pharmacokinetic properties of human and cynomolgus macaque IgG in BALB/c and the NIH Swiss derived Hsd:NIHS mice, respectively. Using human and cynomolgus macaque serum with known ELISA antibody titres against both vaccine components, we have shown that passive immunisation of human and nonhuman primate serum provides a reproducible delay in median time to death in mice exposed to a lethal aerosol of plague. In addition, we have shown that Hsd:NIHS mice are a better model for humoral passive transfer studies than BALB/c mice. V. A. Graham, G. J. Hatch, K. R. Bewley, K. Steeds, A. Lansley, S. R. Bate, and S. G. P. Funnell Copyright © 2014 V. A. Graham et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Pristane Alone or Combined with Chloroquine on Macrophage Activation, Oxidative Stress, and Th1/Th2 Skewness Sun, 06 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We investigated the protective role of chloroquine against pristane-induced macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness in C57BL/6J mice. Those mice were treated with pristane alone or combined with chloroquine. Hematological and biochemical parameters, macrophage phagocytic function, the oxidant/antioxidant index, cytokine for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6, and the isotypes of IgG2a and IgG1 were determined. And the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and IL-12/IL-10 mRNA in spleen were analyzed by real-time PCR. We found that pristane treatment for a period of 12 or 24 weeks triggered macrophage activation syndrome, characterized by hemophagocytosis in spleen and peripheral blood, enhanced lipid phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, erythropenia and leucopenia, increased anti-Smith, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and ferritin, as well as hypercytokinemia of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, as well as a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in spleen, were observed. However, chloroquine supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that pristane administration induces macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness, which can be attenuated by chloroquine. Qiufang Ouyang, Ziyang Huang, Zhenhua Wang, Xiaoqing Chen, Jingqin Ni, and Ling Lin Copyright © 2014 Qiufang Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Palladium Nanoparticles Induce Disturbances in Cell Cycle Entry and Progression of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Paramount Role of Ions Thu, 03 Jul 2014 14:13:08 +0000 There is concern about the possible toxicity of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NP), as they are released in the environment through many applications. We previously studied the toxicity of Pd-NP at high concentrations; here we address the possible toxicity of Pd-NP at low, subtoxic doses. In particular, we have exposed normal human PBMC entering into the first in vitro mitotic division to Pd-NP and to Pd(IV) ions to evaluate ROS generation and cell cycle progression. We have measured a statistically significant increase of intracellular ROS in Pd(IV) exposed cells, but not in Pd-NP exposed cells. TEM revealed accumulation of lipid droplets and autophagic and mitophagic vacuoles, which appeared more conspicuous in cells exposed to Pd(IV) ions than to Pd-NP. Pd-NP were visible in the cytoplasm of Pd-NP exposed cells. Pd-NP addition was associated with a significant increase of cells within the G0/G1-phase and a significant reduction in GS- and G2/M-phases. Cells exposed to Pd(IV) ions showed a significant amplification of these cell cycle alterations. These results suggest that ions, per se or released by NPs, are the true inducers of Pd toxicity. It will be essential to verify whether the observed disturbance represents a temporary response or might result in permanent alterations. Claudia Petrarca, Emanuela Clemente, Luca Di Giampaolo, Renato Mariani-Costantini, Kerstin Leopold, Roland Schindl, Lavinia V. Lotti, Rocco Mangifesta, Enrico Sabbioni, Qiao Niu, Giovanni Bernardini, and Mario Di Gioacchino Copyright © 2014 Claudia Petrarca et al. All rights reserved. Association between the −794 (CATT)5–8  MIF Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Western Mexican Population Thu, 03 Jul 2014 06:15:17 +0000 The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is related to the progression of atherosclerosis, which, in turn, is a key factor in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MIF has a CATT short tandem repeat (STR) at position −794 that might be involved in its expression rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the −794   MIF gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. This research included 200 ACS patients classified according to the criteria of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and 200 healthy subjects (HS). The −794   MIF gene polymorphism was analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The 6 allele was the most frequent in both groups (ACS: 54% and HS: 57%). The most common genotypes in ACS patients and HS were 6/7 and 6/6, respectively, and a significant association was found between the 6/7 genotype and susceptibility to ACS (68% versus 47% in ACS and HS, resp., ). We conclude that the 6/7 genotype of the MIF −794 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Yeminia Valle, Elena Sandoval-Pinto, Ilian Janet García-González, Angélica Valdez-Haro, Ulises De la Cruz-Mosso, Héctor Enrique Flores-Salinas, and Jorgé Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez Copyright © 2014 Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado et al. All rights reserved. Multiplex Evaluation of Influenza Neutralizing Antibodies with Potential Applicability to In-Field Serological Studies Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The increased number of outbreaks of H5 and H7 LPAI and HPAI viruses in poultry has major public and animal health implications. The continuous rapid evolution of these subtypes and the emergence of new variants influence the ability to undertake effective surveillance. Retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope glycoproteins represent a flexible platform for sensitive, readily standardized influenza serological assays. We describe a multiplex assay for the study of neutralizing antibodies that are directed against both influenza H5 and H7 HA. This assay permits the measurement of neutralizing antibody responses against two antigenically distinct HAs in the same serum/plasma sample thus increasing the amount and quality of serological data that can be acquired from valuable sera. Sera obtained from chickens vaccinated with a monovalent H5N2 vaccine, chickens vaccinated with a bivalent H7N1/H5N9 vaccine, or turkeys naturally infected with an H7N3 virus were evaluated in this assay and the results correlated strongly with data obtained by HI assay. We show that pseudotypes are highly stable under basic cold-chain storage conditions and following multiple rounds of freeze-thaw. We propose that this robust assay may have practical utility for in-field serosurveillance and vaccine studies in resource-limited regions worldwide. Eleonora Molesti, Edward Wright, Calogero Terregino, Rafat Rahman, Giovanni Cattoli, and Nigel J. Temperton Copyright © 2014 Eleonora Molesti et al. All rights reserved. Roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in Mediating the Inflammatory Response in Mouse Microglia following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection can cause central nervous system disease with irreversible neurological damage in humans and animals. Evidence suggests that overactivation of microglia leads to greatly increased neuronal damage during JEV infection. However, the mechanism by which JEV induces the activation of microglia remains unclear. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) can recognize double-stranded RNA, and their downstream signaling results in production of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in the inflammatory response caused by JEV infection in the mouse microglial cell line. JEV infection induced the expression of TLR3 and RIG-I and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I attenuated activation of ERK, p38MAPK, activator protein 1 (AP-1), and nuclear factor B (NF-B). Secretion of TNF-, IL-6, and CCL-2, which was induced by JEV, was reduced by TLR3 and RIG-I knockdown and inhibitors of phosphorylated ERK and p38MAPK. Furthermore, viral proliferation was increased following knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I. Our findings suggest that the signaling pathways of TLR3 and RIG-I play important roles in the JEV-induced inflammatory response of microglia. Rong Jiang, Jing Ye, Bibo Zhu, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, and Shengbo Cao Copyright © 2014 Rong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Immunopathogenesis of Ocular Behçet’s Disease Wed, 02 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic recurrent systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral and genital ulcerations, skin lesions, and uveitis. The ocular involvement of BD, or Behçet’s uveitis (BU), is characterized by panuveitis or posterior uveitis with occlusive retinal vasculitis and tends to be more recurrent and sight threatening than other endogenous autoimmune uveitides, despite aggressive immunosuppression. Although pathogenesis of BD is unclear, researches have revealed that immunological aberrations may be the cornerstone of BD development. General hypothesis of BD pathogenesis is that inflammatory response is initiated by infectious agents or autoantigens in patients with predisposing genetic factors and perpetuated by both innate and acquired immunity. In addition, a network of immune mediators plays a substantial role in the inflammatory cascade. Recently, we found that the immunopathogenesis of BU is distinct from other autoimmune uveitides regarding intraocular effector cell profiles, maturation markers of dendritic cells, and the cytokine/chemokine environment. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of Th17 cells in BD and BU. Recent studies on genetics and biologics therapies in refractory BU also support the immunological association with the pathogenesis of BU. In this review, we provide an overview of novel findings regarding the immunopathogenesis of BU. Un Chul Park, Tae Wan Kim, and Hyeong Gon Yu Copyright © 2014 Un Chul Park et al. All rights reserved. Autoantibodies in Systemic Autoimmune Disorders Mon, 30 Jun 2014 11:06:13 +0000 Michael Mahler, Silvia Pierangeli, Pier-Luigi Meroni, and Marvin J. Fritzler Copyright © 2014 Michael Mahler et al. All rights reserved. Role of Lysosomes in Silica-Induced Inflammasome Activation and Inflammation in Absence of MARCO Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:33:47 +0000 MARCO is the predominant scavenger receptor for recognition and binding of silica particles by alveolar macrophages (AM). Previously, it was shown that mice null for MARCO have a greater inflammatory response to silica, but the mechanism was not described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MARCO and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and release of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, to a greater extent in MARCO−/− AM compared to wild type (WT) AM. Furthermore, in MARCO−/− AM there was greater cathepsin B release from phagolysosomes, Caspase-1 activation, and acid sphingomyelinase activity compared to WT AM, supporting the critical role played by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in triggering silica-induced inflammation. The difference in sensitivity to LMP appears to be in cholesterol recycling since increasing cholesterol in AM by treatment with U18666A decreased silica-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and cells lacking MARCO were less able to sequester cholesterol following silica treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MARCO contributes to normal cholesterol uptake in macrophages; therefore, in the absence of MARCO, macrophages are more susceptible to a greater inflammatory response by particulates known to cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the effect is due to increased LMP. Rupa Biswas, Raymond F. Hamilton Jr., and Andrij Holian Copyright © 2014 Rupa Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Targeting TLR2 for Vaccine Development Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:24:49 +0000 Novel and more effective immunization strategies against many animal diseases may profit from the current knowledge on the modulation of specific immunity through stimulation of innate immune receptors. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-targeting formulations, such as synthetic lipopeptides and antigens expressed in fusion with lipoproteins, have been shown to have built-in adjuvant properties and to be effective at inducing cellular and humoral immune mechanisms in different animal species. However, contradictory data has arisen concerning the profile of the immune response elicited. The benefits of targeting TLR2 for vaccine development are thus still debatable and more studies are needed to rationally explore its characteristics. Here, we resume the main features of TLR2 and TLR2-induced immune responses, focusing on what has been reported for veterinary animals. Afonso P. Basto and Alexandre Leitão Copyright © 2014 Afonso P. Basto and Alexandre Leitão. All rights reserved.