Table 1: Targeting ceramide metabolic enzymes alters drug resistance in cancers.

EnzymesCancer species (cell line)DrugResistanceReference

GCS Breast cancer (MCF-7)Adriamycin [103, 104]
Colon cancer (SW620)Adriamycin [104]
Epidermoid carcinoma (KB-3-1)Adriamycin [104]
Vinblastine
Leukemia (HL-60)Vincristine [104]
Melanoma (MeWo)Etoposide [104]
Leukemia (HL-60)Doxorubicin [105]

GCS Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7Adriamycin [106]
Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7Vinblastine [107]
Paclitaxel
Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 and murine breast cancer (EMT6)Doxorubicin [108, 109]
Adriamycin-resistant SW620Doxorubicin [108]
Doxorubicin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780)Doxorubicin [108]
Doxorubicin-resistant cervical cancer (KB-A1)Doxorubicin [108]
Hepatoma (HepG2)Doxorubicin [110]
Multidrug-resistant leukemia (K562/A02)Adriamycin [111]

Acid Ceramidase Prostate cancer (DU145)Doxorubicin
Cisplatin [112]
Etoposide
Gemcitabine

Acid Ceramidase Hepatoma (HepG2, Hep-3B, SK-Hep and Hepa1c1c7)Daunorubicin [113]

SphK1 Ovarian cancer (A2780)4-HPR [114]
Leukemia (HL-60)Doxorubicin [115]
Etoposide
Pancreatic cancer (Panc-1)Gemcitabine [116]

SphK1 4-HPR-resistant A27804-HPR [114]
Daunorubicin-resistant leukemia (K562)Daunorubicin [117]
Camptothecin-resistant prostate cancer (PC3)Camptothecin [118]
Oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer (RKO)Oxaliplatin [119]

Acid SMase GliomaGemcitabine [120]
Doxorubicin

S1P lyase Lung cancer (A549)Cisplatin
Carboplatin [121]
Doxorubicin