- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Metallurgy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 290873, 7 pages
Effect of Mechanical Milling and Cold Pressing on Co Powder
1Department of Engineering Metallurgy, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
2Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Materials Science and Manufacturing, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
3DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Received 29 August 2011; Revised 28 October 2011; Accepted 2 November 2011
Academic Editor: Qian Zhao
Copyright © 2012 A. S. Bolokang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. P. Pileni, “Mesoscopic domains of cobalt nanocrystals,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 1707–1718, 2002.
- Z. Fang, P. Maheshwari, X. Wang, H. Y. Sohn, A. Griffo, and R. Riley, “An experimental study of the sintering of nanocrystalline WC-Co powders,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 23, no. 4–6, pp. 249–257, 2005.
- X. Q. Ou, M. Song, T. T. Shen, D. H. Xiao, and Y. H. He, “Fabrication and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained WC-10Co-0.45Cr3C2-0.25VC alloys,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 260–267, 2011.
- M. H. Enayati, G. R. Aryanpour, and A. Ebnonnasir, “Production of nanostructured WC-Co powder by ball milling,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 159–163, 2009.
- H. Matsumoto, “Variation in transformation hysteresis in pure cobalt with transformation cycles,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 223, no. 1, pp. L1–L3, 1995.
- J. Y. Huang, Y. K. Wu, H. Q. Ye, and K. Lu, “Allotropic transformation of cobalt induced by ball milling,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 6, no. 5–8, pp. 723–726, 1995.
- J. Sort, J. Nogués, S. Suriñach, J. S. Muñoz, and M. D. Baró, “Microstructural aspects of the hcp-fcc allotropic phase transformation induced in cobalt by ball milling,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 439–455, 2003.
- J. Sort, J. Nogués, S. Surinach, J. S. Muñoz, and M. D. Baró, “Correlation between stacking fault formation, allotropic phase transformations and magnetic properties of ball-milled cobalt,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 375–377, no. 1-2, pp. 869–873, 2004.
- F. Delogu, “Kinetics of allotropic phase transformation in cobalt powders undergoing mechanical processing,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 126–129, 2008.
- A. Kirin, A. Bonefačić, and D. Dužević, “Phase transformation in pressed cobalt powder,” Journal of Physics F, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2781–2786, 1984.
- E. A. Owen and D. Madoc Jones, “Effect of grain size on the crystal structure of cobalt,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 67, no. 6, article 302, pp. 456–466, 1954.
- A. S. Bolokang, M. J. Phasha, C. Oliphant, and D. Motaung, “XRD analysis and microstructure of milled and sintered V, W, C, and Co powders,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 108–111, 2011.
- S. S. Grabchikov and A. M. Yaskovich, “Effect of the structure of amorphous electrodeposited Ni-W and Ni-Co-W alloys on their crystallization,” Russian Metallurgy, vol. 2006, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2006.
- M. A. Sheikholeslam, M. H. Enayati, and K. Raeissi, “Characterization of nanocrystalline and amorphous cobalt-phosphorous electrodeposits,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 21-22, pp. 3629–3631, 2008.
- A. M. Bolarín-Miró, F. S.-D. Jesús, G. Torres-Villaseñor, C. A. Cortés-Escobedo, J. A. Betancourt-Cantera, and J. I. Betancourt-Reyes, “Amorphization of Co-base alloy by mechanical alloying,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 357, no. 7, pp. 1705–1709, 2011.
- S. Louidi, F. Z. Bentayeb, W. Tebib, J. J. Suñol, A. M. Mercier, and J. M. Grenèche, “Amorphisation of Cr-10Co mixture by mechanical alloying,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 356, no. 20–22, pp. 1052–1056, 2010.
- G. F. Zhou and H. Bakker, “Atomically disordered nanocrystalline Co2Si by high-energy ball milling,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 6, no. 22, article 004, pp. 4043–4052, 1994.
- Y. Limoge and A. Barbu, “Amorphization mechanism in metallic crystalline solids under irradiation,” Physical Review B, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 2212–2215, 1984.
- M. Holz, P. Ziemann, and W. Buckel, “Direct evidence for amorphization of pure gallium by low-temperature ion irradiation,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 1584–1587, 1983.
- M. A. Xueming and J. I. Gang, “Nanostructured WC-Co alloy prepared by mechanical alloying,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 245, no. 1-2, pp. L30–L32, 1996.
- S. Takeda and J. Yamasaki, “Amorphization in silicon by electron irradiation,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 320–323, 1999.
- G. Patriarche, E. Le Bourhis, M. M. O. Khayyat, and M. M. Chaudhri, “Indentation-induced crystallization and phase transformation of amorphous germanium,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 1464–1468, 2004.
- G. J. Fan, F. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Hu, M. X. Quan, and K. Lu, “Amorphization of selenium induced by high-energy ball milling,” Physical Review B, vol. 55, no. 17, pp. 11010–11013, 1997.
- Y. Wang, Y. Z. Fang, T. Kikegawa et al., “Amorphouslike diffraction pattern in solid metallic titanium,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, no. 15, Article ID 155501, 2005.
- Y. Koltypin, G. Katabi, X. Cao, R. Prozorov, and A. Gedanken, “Sonochemical preparation of amorphous nickel,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 201, no. 1-2, pp. 159–162, 1996.
- C. Xie, J. Hu, R. Wu, and H. Xia, “Structure transition comparison between the amorphous nanosize particles and coarse-grained polycrystalline of cobalt,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1061–1066, 1999.
- Y. Song, L. L. Henrys, and W. Yang, “Stable amorphous cobalt nanoparticles formed by an in situ rapidly cooling microfluidic process,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 10209–10217, 2009.
- C. C. Koch, O. B. Cavin, C. G. McKamey, and J. O. Scarbrough, “Preparation of "amorphous" Ni60Nb40 by mechanical alloying,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1017–1019, 1983.
- L. Schultz, “Formation of amorphous metals by mechanical alloying,” Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 97, pp. 15–23, 1988.
- J. Eckert, L. Schultz, and K. Urban, “Comparison of solid-state amorphization by mechanical alloying and interdiffusion in NiZr,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 134, pp. 1389–1393, 1991.
- I. Börner and J. Eckert, “Phase formation and properties of mechanically alloyed amorphous Al85Y8Ni5Co2,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 237–244, 2001.
- J. T. Hsieh, C. K. Lin, J. S. Chen, R. R. Jeng, Y. L. Lin, and P. Y. Lee, “Preparation and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed amorphous Ni-Zr-Ti-Si composites,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 375–377, no. 1-2, pp. 820–824, 2004.
- C. Bansal, B. Fultz, and W. L. Johnson, “Crystallization of FeBSi metallic glass during ball milling,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 919–925, 1994.
- M. L. Trudeau, “Deformation induced crystallization due to instability in amorphous FeZr alloys,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 64, no. 26, pp. 3661–3663, 1994.
- B. Huang, R. J. Perez, P. J. Crawford, A. A. Sharif, S. R. Nutt, and E. J. Lavernia, “Mechanically induced crystallization of metglas Fe78B13Si9 during cryogenic high energy ball milling,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 545–553, 1995.
- J. Xu and M. Atzmon, “Temperature dependence of deformation-assisted crystallization in amorphous Fe78B13Si9,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 73, no. 13, pp. 1805–1807, 1998.
- Y. S. Kwon, J. S. Kim, I. V. Povstugar, E. P. Yelsukov, and P. P. Choi, “Role of local heating in crystallization of amorphous alloys under ball milling: an experiment on Fe90Zr10,” Physical Review B, vol. 75, no. 14, Article ID 144112, 2007.
- J. J. Suñol, A. González, and J. Saurina, “Thermal analysis of two Fe-X-B (X=Nb, ZrNi) alloys prepared by mechanical alloying,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 329–335, 2003.
- X. J. Gu, F. Ye, F. Zhou, and K. Lu, “Pressure effect on crystallization of mechanically alloyed amorphous Al85Fe15 alloy,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 278, no. 1-2, pp. 61–65, 2000.
- F. Ye and K. Lu, “Pressure effect on crystallization kinetics of an Al-La-Ni amorphous alloy,” Acta Materialia, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 2449–2454, 1999.
- C. Mangler, C. Gammer, H. P. Karnthaler, and C. Rentenberger, “Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion,” Acta Materialia, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 5631–5638, 2010.
- C. Papandrea and L. Battezzati, “A study of the α↔γ transformation in pure iron: rate variations revealed by means of thermal analysis,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 1601–1618, 2007.
- A. K. Rai, S. Raju, B. Jeyaganesh, E. Mohandas, R. Sudha, and V. Ganesan, “Effect of heating and cooling rate on the kinetics of allotropic phase changes in uranium: a differential scanning calorimetry study,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 383, no. 3, pp. 215–225, 2009.
- J. J. Sunol, A. González, T. Pradell, P. Bruna, M. T. Clavaguera-Mora, and N. Clavaguera, “Thermal and structural changes induced by mechanical alloying in melt-spun Fe-Ni based amorphous alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 375–377, no. 1-2, pp. 881–887, 2004.
- M. T. Clavaguera-Mora, J. J. Suñol, and N. Clavaguera, “Relaxation Kinetics of Mechanically Alloyed Powders. Fe-Ni-Si-P: A Case Study,” Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials, vol. 10, pp. 459–466, 2001.
- V. V. Boldyrev and K. Tkáčová, “Mechanochemistry of solids: past, present, and prospects,” Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 121–132, 2000.
- S. Kajiwara, S. Ohno, K. Honma, and M. Uda, “New crystal structure of pure cobalt formed in ultrafine particles,” Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 215–219, 1987.
- S. D. De la Torre, K. N. Ishihara, and P. H. Shingu, “Synthesis of SnTe by repeated cold-pressing,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 266, no. 1-2, pp. 37–43, 1999.
- Y. Birol, “Crystallization of a Fe36Ni36B28 metallic glass during ball-milling,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1081–1085, 1996.
- J. Bednarčík, J. Kováč, P. Kollár et al., “Crystallization of CoFeSiB metallic glass induced by long-time ball milling,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 337, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2004.
- M. Pȩkała, M. Jachimowicz, V. I. Fadeeva, and H. Matyja, “Phase transformations in Co-B-Si alloys induced by high-energy ball milling,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 287, no. 1–3, pp. 360–365, 2001.
- A. S. Bolokang and M. J. Phasha, “Thermal analysis on the curie temperature of nanocrystalline Ni produced by ball milling,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 518–521, 2011.
- W. Szkliniarz and G. Smolka, “Analysis of volume effects of phase transformation in titanium alloys,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 413–422, 1995.