- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Materials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 650207, 5 pages
Modified Physical, Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth Silicate Glasses
1Department of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, India
2Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana 125001, India
3Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana 125055, India
Received 9 December 2012; Accepted 16 January 2013
Academic Editor: Eugen Culea
Copyright © 2013 Rajesh Parmar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Iron-containing bismuth silicate glasses with compositions 60SiO2·() have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glass samples has been ascertained by the X-ray diffraction. The density (d) has been measured using Archimedes principle, molar volume () has also been estimated, and both are observed to decrease with the increase in iron content. The glass transition temperature () of these iron bismuth silicate glasses has been determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, and it increases with the increase in content. The IR spectra of these glasses consist mainly of [BiO6], [BiO3], and [SiO4] structural units. The optical properties are measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy. The optical bandgap energy () is observed to decrease with the increase in content, whereas reverse trend is observed for refractive index.
The heavy metal oxide glasses have attracted the attention due to their optoelectronic and photonic applications because of their optical properties such as refractive index, optical nonlinearity, and infrared transmission to develop more efficient lasers and fibre optic amplifiers at longer wavelength than other oxide glasses . Bi2O3, attracted the attention of scientific community which is of current interest because of its important applications in glass ceramics, thermal and mechanical sensors, layers for optical and electronic devices, and so forth and as transmitting windows in the IR region [2–4]. Due to high polarizability and small field strengths of ions, Bi2O3 is not a classical glass former although in the presence of other oxides such as B2O3, PbO, SiO2, and V2O5, it may form a glass network of [BiO3] and [BiO6] pyramids [1, 5]. Silicate glasses, because of their favourable physical, chemical, and optical characteristics, are used in numerous applications: in optics as lenses or beam splitters, in telecommunications as optical fibres, in micro- and optoelectronics, and in near-IR windows due to their low optical attenuation and optical dispersion [6, 7]. Oxide glasses containing transition metal oxides such as Fe2O3 are used in electrochemical, electronic, and electro-optic devices . The presence of transition metal oxides (in addition to Bi2O3) gives new possibilities to extend the properties of these materials. Due to the presence of different valence states of Fe, it participates in glass matrix as and and results in various modified structural units . The addition of Fe2O3 in these glasses enhances the chemical durability and their stability. Keeping in the view the effect of transition metal ions in modifying the structure and their wide range of applications, it is of interest to carry out the detailed study of the effect of Fe2O3 on the physical, structural, and optical properties of heavy metal oxide containing bismuth silicate glasses.
2. Experimental Details
Glass samples of compositions () (, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20) were prepared using analar grade chemicals Fe2O3, Bi2O3, and . The appropriate amount of these chemicals were thoroughly mixed in an agate pestle mortar. Silica crucible containing the mixture was put in an electrically heated muffle furnace, and the temperature was raised slowly to 1000–1150°C depending on the composition. The temperature was maintained for 1 hour, and the melt was shaken frequently to ensure proper mixing and homogeneity. The melt was then poured onto a stainless steel block and was pressed immediately by another stainless steel block at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the synthesized glass samples were recorded by using Rigaku tabletop X-Ray diffractometer. Density () of the samples was measured by Archimedes’ principle using xylene as immersion liquid. The values of glass transition temperature () of different glass samples were measured using the DSC technique by TA Instruments, Model no. Q600 SDT. The studies were carried out at a heating rate of 20°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The room temperature absorption spectra and IR spectra of the glass samples were, respectively, recorded using double beam UV-visible spectrophotometer and Shimadzu IR affinity-I 8000 Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 4000–400 using KBr as a standard reference material.
3. Results and Discussion
The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) of the prepared glass samples 60SiO2()are shown in Figure 1. The perusal of XRD patterns shows the presence of broad hump and absence of any sharp peaks. In XRD patterns, the presence of a broad diffuse scattering at low angles instead of crystalline peaks, confirms a long range structural disorder characteristic of amorphous network.
The values of the characteristic glass transition temperature () of these glasses have been estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at a rate of 20°C/min. It is observed that the glass transition temperature increases from 469°C to 513°C and provide greater glass stability. The addition of Fe2O3 can act as an intermediate and a glass modifying oxide and can be present in both the and states in the glass network . This observation suggests that the addition of Fe2O3 leads to the growth and densification of the Bi2O3 glass matrix. The increase of with iron content indicates that the glass network becomes more stable. The increasing trend in the with the increase in the iron content indicates that when Fe2O3 is substituted for Bi2O3, the Fe–O–Bi and Bi–O–Bi bonds are broken and new bonds such as Fe–O–Fe bonds are probably formed . Therefore, drastic changes in the cannot be expected with the increase in the Fe2O3 content indicating the isostructural units of nearly same bond strength.
3.1. Physical Properties
The density “”, of the glasses in present system, was determined at room temperature using Archimedes principle with xylene (density is taken as 0.865 gm/mL) as an inert immersion liquid . The molar volume () of samples was calculated using the following relation  where is the molar fraction, is the molecular weight of the component, and is the density of sample. The density () and molar volume () both decrease with the increase in iron content. The measured values of density and calculated values of molar volume for the system are listed in Table 1. The perusal of data from Table 1 shows that the topology of the network is significantly changed with composition and the glass structure becomes less tightly packed with the increase in the Fe2O3 concentration . This type of behavior is explained simply as the replacement of the heavier Bi2O3 by the lighter Fe2O3, and this indicates that Fe2O3 plays the role of the glass modifier, and it introduces excess structural free volume .
3.2. FTIR Spectroscopy
The FTIR spectra of glass compositions 60SiO2() with different values of are shown in Figure 2(a), and the magnified version of typical FTIR spectrum for composition is presented in Figure 2(b). Two broadbands at 420–540 and 860–1120 are observed in the spectra of all compositions, while weakband at around 730–780 exists in the spectra of all compositions. The band at 420–540 is attributed to the Bi–O bending vibrations of BiO6 structural units . On increasing the concentration of Fe2O3, small kinks at 410–430 , 430–460 , and 470–530 start appearing within the broadband . The increase in concentration of Fe2O3 some bands at 550–660 in compositions with mole% appears and is attributed due to the vibrations of Fe–O bonds of FeO6 structural units, and FeO4 structural units and it indicates that some iron ions occupy the glass network modifier and glass former positions . The shifting of bands towards higher wave number a side with the increase in Fe2O3 content indicates the formation of FeO4 units at the expense of FeO6 octahedral units. The dip of broad band between 730–780 centred at around 752 increases with the increase in the concentration of Fe2O3 and may be attributed to the symmetric stretching vibration of Si–O–Si bonds of SiO4 tetrahedra . The band at around 860–1120 is assigned to Si–O–Si asymmetric vibrations of SiO4 tetrahedra in polymerized network dominated Si–O–Si bridging links. The width of this band slowly goes on decreasing with the increase in concentration of Fe2O3 . As the concentration of the SiO2 is kept constant in all compositions, the symmetry of silicate network goes on increasing with Fe2O3 concentration. These increases in symmetry indicate the increase in the strength of network and hence increase in the glass transition temperature.
3.3. Optical Transmittance
The optical transmission spectra of the glass samples 60SiO2() with different values of are shown in Figure 3. The absorption edge is observed towards longer wavelength side with the increase in the iron content. As the concentration of Fe2O3 increases beyond 5 mol% (i.e., , and 20 mol%) the colour of the glass samples becomes opaque (blackish in colour), and transmittance becomes nearly zero.
The optical band gap energy of the glasses can be calculated from the UV absorption edge using the well-known Tauc law relation  where is the absorption coefficient, is the incident photon energy, is constant, is the optical band gap energy, and the exponent is a parameter which depends on the type of electronic transition responsible for absorption. The Tauc plots were plotted for various values of , that is, 1/2, 2, 1/3, and 3 corresponding to direct allowed, indirect allowed, direct forbidden, and indirect forbidden transitions respectively. The fitting is most suitable corresponding to and shown in Figure 4. The value of optical band gap energies () are determined from the linear region of the curve after extrapolating to meet the axis at and are presented in Table 1.
The values of refractive index for various compositions have been determined from the optical energy band gap using the relation proposed by Dimitrov and Sakka : The decrease in optical band gap may be due to the increase in concentration of the nonbridging oxygen (NBO) atoms with the increase in Fe2O3 . Similarly, the increase in refractive index with the increase in iron content due to the presence of nonbridging oxygens which have an effect on the refractive index because the polarity of the nonbridging oxygen is higher than that of the bridging oxygen . The variation in optical band gap energy and refractive index as a function of Fe2O3 is shown in Figure 5.
Glasses with compositions 60SiO2(); , 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 have been successfully prepared by conventional rapid melt-quenching technique. The glassy nature is confirmed by the X-ray diffractograms. Values of the physical properties like density and molar volume decrease with the increase in the iron content, whereas glass transition temperature shows reverse trend. The analysis of the FTIR shows that SiO2 in these glass compositions exists in SiO4 tetrahedral structural units, and the symmetry of the silicate network goes on increasing with the increase in Fe2O3 concentration. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier and exists in BiO6 octahedral units. Iron plays the role of network modifier as well as glass former and exits in FeO6 octahedral structural units and FeO4 tetrahedral units, respectively. The band gap energy decreases with increase in iron concentration, and refractive index increases with the increase in the Fe2O3 content. In all glass samples, the symmetry of silicate network goes on increasing with Fe2O3 content and hence it modifies the physical and structural properties of these glasses.
Authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for providing financial assistance and one of the authors (R. Parmar) is thankful for granting teacher fellowship under FIP scheme.
- W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 27, pp. 119–123, 1986.
- D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 54, no. 14, pp. 1293–1295, 1989.
- C. Stehle, C. Vira, D. Hogan, S. Feller, and M. Affatigato, “Optical and physical properties of bismuth borate glasses related to structure,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 83–86, 1998.
- A. Pan and A. Ghosh, “New family of lead-bismuthate glass with a large transmitting window,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 271, no. 1, pp. 157–161, 2000.
- A. Ghosh and B. K. Chaudhuri, “Preparation and characterization of binary V2O5-Bi2O3 glasses,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 2369–2376, 1987.
- J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1992.
- G. E. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, McGraw- Hill Higher Education-International Editions: Electrical Engineering Series, 3rd edition, 2000.
- U. Selvaraj and K. J. Rao, “Characterization studies of molybdophosphate glasses and a model of structural defects,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 72, no. 2-3, pp. 315–334, 1985.
- A. Mekki, D. Holland, K. A. Ziq, and C. F. McConville, “Structural and magnetic properties of sodium iron germanate glasses,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 272, no. 2-3, pp. 179–190, 2000.
- X. Yu, D. E. Day, G. J. Long, and R. K. Brow, “Properties and structure of sodium—Iron phosphate glasses,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 215, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 1997.
- H. H. Qiu, T. Ito, and H. Sakata, “DC conductivity of Fe2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 1999.
- N. A. Zarifah, M. K. Halimah, M. Hashim, B. Z. Azmi, and W. M. Daud, “Magnetic behaviour of (Fe2O3)x (TeO2)1−x glass system due to iron oxide,” Chalcogenide Letters, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 565–571, 2010.
- E. Mansour, G. M. El-Damrawi, Y. M. Moustafa, S. Abd El-Maksoud, and H. Doweidar, “Polaronic conduction in barium borate glasses containing iron oxide,” Physica B, vol. 293, no. 3-4, pp. 268–275, 2001.
- Sanjay, N. Kishore, and A. Agarwal, “Study of structural, optical and transport properties of semiconducting Fe2O3-PbO-B2O3 glasses,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 2010.
- P. Pascuta and E. Culea, “FTIR spectroscopic study of some bismuth germanate glasses containing gadolinium ions,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 25, pp. 4127–4129, 2008.
- S. M. Salem, E. M. Antar, A. G. Mostafa, S. M. Salem, and S. A. El-Badry, “Compositional dependence of the structural and dielectric properties of Li2O-GeO2-ZnO-Bi2O3-Fe2O3 glasses,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1295–1304, 2011.
- M. Shapaan and F. M. Ebrahim, “Structural and electricdielectric properties of B2O 3Bi2O3Fe2O3 oxide glasses,” Physica B, vol. 405, no. 16, pp. 3217–3222, 2010.
- A. M. B. Silva, C. M. Queiroz, S. Agathopoulos, R. N. Correia, M. H. V. Fernandes, and J. M. Oliveria, “Structure of SiO2-MgO-Na2O glasses By FTIR, raman and29Si MAS NMR,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 986, no. 1–3, pp. 16–21, 2011.
- Y. Dimitriev, M. Krupchanska, Y. Ivanova, and A. Staneva, “Sol-gel synthesis of materials in the system Bi2O3-SiO2,” Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, vol. 45, pp. 39–42, 2010, Book 1.
- R. Punia, R. S. Kundu, J. Hooda, S. Dhankhar, Sajjan Dahiya, and N. Kishore, “Effect of Bi2O3 on structural, optical, and other physical properties of semiconducting zinc vanadate glasses,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 3, Article ID 033527, 2011.
- V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 1736–1740, 1996.
- J. F. Stebbins, P. Zhao, and S. Kroeker, “Non-bridging oxygens in borate glasses: characterization by 11B and 17O MAS and 3QMAS NMR,” Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 9–19, 2000.
- Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 354, no. 29, pp. 3468–3472, 2008.