- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Mathematics

Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 719324, 7 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/719324

## Some Common Fixed Point Theorems in Generalized Metric Spaces

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Delhi Institute of Technology and Management, Gannaur 131101, Sonipat, India^{2}Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, India^{3}Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, India^{4}Department of Mathematics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal 131039, India

Received 30 January 2013; Accepted 18 March 2013

Academic Editor: Jen-Chih Yao

Copyright © 2013 Manoj Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

First we prove common fixed point theorems for weakly compatible maps which generalize the results of Chen (2012). Secondly, we prove common fixed point theorems using property E.A. along with weakly compatible maps. At the end, we prove common fixed point theorems using common limit range property (CLR property) along with weakly compatible maps.

#### 1. Introduction

In 2000, Branciari [1] introduced the notion of generalized metric space as follows.

*Definition 1. *Let be a nonempty set and let be a mapping such that for all and for all distinct points each of them different from and , one has the following:(i) if and only if ,(ii),
(iii) (rectangular inequality).

Then is called a generalized metric space (or shortly g.m.s.).

*Definition 2. *Let be a g.m.s. Let be a sequence in and . We say that is (i) g.m.s. convergent to if and only if as ,(ii) g.m.s. Cauchy sequence if and only if, for each , there exists such that, for all ,(iii) complete g.m.s. if every g.m.s. Cauchy sequence is g.m.s. convergent in .

In 1986, Jungck [2] introduced the notion of compatible maps as follows.

Let be a metric space. Let be two single-valued functions. We say that and are compatible if , whenever is a sequence in such that .

In 1998, Jungck and Rhoades [3] introduced the notion of weakly compatible maps as follows.

Two maps are said to be weakly compatible if they commute at the coincidence point. Note that compatible maps are weakly compatible but the converse is not true in general.

In 2002, Aamri and El Moutawakil [4] introduced the notion of property E.A. as follows.

Let and be two self-mappings of a metric space . We say that and satisfy the property E.A. if there exists a sequence such that for some in .

In 2011, Sintunavarat and Kumam [5] introduced the notion of (CLRg) property as follows.

Let be a metric space. Two mappings and are said to satisfy (CLRg) property if there exists sequences in such that
Similarly, we can state () and () properties if the mapping has been replaced by the mapping and , respectively.

In 2012, Chen [6] introduced the notion of function and function as follows.

*Definition 3. *A function is said to be a function if the function satisfies the following conditions: () for all and , () for all .

*Definition 4. *A function is said to be a function if the function satisfies the following conditions: () is a strictly increasing, continuous function in each coordinate, () for all , , , , and .

Before proving our results, we need the following lemma.

Lemma 5 (see [6]). *Let be a function. Then for all , where denotes the th iteration of .*

#### 2. Weakly Compatible Maps

In 2012, Chen [6] proved the following fixed point theorems for compatible maps.

Theorem 6. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying the following:
**
If or is continuous, then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

Theorem 7. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (2), (4), and the following:
**
If one of , , , and , is a complete subset of then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

Now, we prove our results for weakly compatible maps.

Theorem 8. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (2), (3) and the following:
**
If one of , , , and is a complete subset of , then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

*Proof. *Let . Define the sequence recursively as follows:
By Theorem 6 [6], is g.m.s. Cauchy sequence in . Now suppose that is complete subset of , then the subsequence must get a limit in . Call it to be and . Then . As is a Cauchy sequence containing a convergent subsequence , therefore the sequence also converges implying, thereby, the convergence of being a subsequence of the convergent sequence .

Taking and in (3), we get
Letting , we have
Therefore, implies that the pair has a point of coincidence.

As , implies that . Letting , then .

Now, from (3), we have
Letting , we have
Therefore, .

Thus, we have shown that , which amounts to say that both pairs have point of coincidence. If one assumes to be complete, then an analogous argument establishes this claim.

The remaining two cases pertain essentially to the previous cases. Indeed, if is complete, then , and if is complete, then . Thus and , , and have a point of coincidence.

Since the pairs and are weakly compatible at and , respectively, then
If , then
Therefore, .

Similarly, one can show that .

Thus is the common fixed point of , , , and .

Finally, we prove that , , , and have a unique common fixed point. Let be another common fixed point of , , , and .

From (3), we have
Hence is the unique common fixed point of , , , and in .

We give the following example to illustrate Theorem 8.

*Example 9. *Let , where , , , , and are positive constants. We define by, for all ,, for all ,,
,
,
,

where is a constant.

If , , then is a function. We next define by
the identity mapping,
Then all the conditions of Theorem 8 are satisfied and is a unique common fixed point of , , , and .

Theorem 10. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (2), (5) and (6). If one of , , , and is a complete subset of , then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

*Proof. *Given that , define the sequence recursively as follows:
Then due to Theorem 7 [6], is g.m.s. Cauchy sequence in . Now, suppose that is complete subset of ; then the subsequence must get a limit in . Call it to be and . Then . As is a Cauchy sequence containing a convergent subsequence , therefore the sequence also converges implying thereby the convergence of being a subsequence of the convergent sequence . On taking and in (5) one gets
Letting , we have
Therefore, , which shows that the pair has a point of coincidence.

As , implies that . Letting , then .

From (5), we have
Letting , we have
Therefore, . Thus, we have shown that , which amounts to say that both pairs have point of coincidence. If one assumes to be complete, then an analogous argument establishes this claim.

The remaining two cases pertain essentially to the previous cases. Indeed if is complete, then , and if is complete, then .

Thus and , , and have a point of coincidence.

Since the pairs and are weakly compatible at and , respectively, then
If , then
Therefore, .

Similarly, one can show that .

Thus is the common fixed point of , , , and .

Finally, we prove that , , , and have a unique common fixed point. Let be another common fixed point of , , , and . Then using (5), we have
Hence is the unique common fixed point of , , , and in .

We give the following example to illustrate Theorem 10.

*Example 11. *Let , where , , , , and are positive constants. We define by, for all ,, for all ,,,,
,

where is a constant.

If , , then is a function. We next define , , , by
Then all the conditions of Theorem 10 are satisfied and is a unique common fixed point of , , , and .

#### 3. Property E.A.

Theorem 12. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (2), (3), (6), and the following:
**
If the range of one of the maps , , , or is a complete subspace of , then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

*Proof. *If the pair satisfies the property E.A., then there exists a sequence in such that and for some as . Since , there exists a sequence in such that . Hence as . Also, since , there exists a sequence in such that . Hence as .

Suppose that is a complete subspace of . Then, for some .

Subsequently, we have , , as .

From (3), we have
Letting , we have
which implies that .

The weak compatibility of and implies that and then .

On the other hand, since , there exists a such that .

Now, we show that .

From (3), we have
The weak compatibility of and implies that and .

Let us show that is the common fixed point of , , , and .

From (3), we have
Therefore, and is the common fixed point of and .

Similarly, we can prove that is the common fixed point of and .

Since , we conclude that is the common fixed point of , , , and .

The proof is similar when is assumed to be complete subspace of . The cases in which or is a complete subspace of are similar to the cases in which or , respectively, is complete since
If and , then (3) gives
Therefore, and the common fixed point is unique.

Theorem 13. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (2), (5), (6), and (26). If the range of one of the maps , , , or is a complete subspace of , then , , , and have a unique common fixed point in .*

*Proof. *If the pair satisfies the property E.A., then there exists a sequence in such that and for some as .

Since , there exists a sequence in such that. Hence as . Also, since , there exists a sequence in such that . Hence as .

Suppose that is a complete subspace of . Then, for some .

Subsequently, we have , , as .

From (5), we have
Letting , we have

The weak compatibility of and implies that and then .

On the other hand, since , there exists a such that .

Now, we show that .

From (5), we have
The weak compatibility of and implies that and .

Let us show that is the common fixed point of , , and .

From (5), we have
Therefore, is the common fixed point of and .

Similarly, one can prove that is the common fixed point of and .

Since , we conclude that is the common fixed point of , , , and .

The proof is similar when is assumed to be complete subspace of . The cases in which or is a complete subspace of are similar to the cases in which or , respectively, is complete since and .

If and , then (5) gives

Therefore, and the common fixed point is unique.

#### 4. (CLR) Property

Theorem 14. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (3), (6), and the following:
**
or
**
Then , , , and have a unique common fixed point.*

*Proof. *Without loss of generality, we assume that and the pair satisfies property; then there exists some sequence in such that and converge to , for some in as .

Since there exists a sequence in such that ; hence as .

Now, we claim that .

Let .

Taking and in (3), we have
Letting , we have
Subsequently, we have , , , and that converge to .

Now, we claim that .

Taking and in (3), we have
Letting , we have
Since the pair is weakly compatible, it follows that .

Also, since , there exists some in such that .

We next show that

Taking , in (3), we have
Letting , we have
But the pair is weakly compatible; it follows that .

Next, we claim that .

Taking , in (3), we have

Now, we show that .

Taking , in (3), we have
Hence is the common fixed point of , , , and .

If and , then (3) gives

Therefore, uniqueness follows.

Theorem 15. *Let be Hausdorff and complete g.m.s. and let be a function. Let , , , and be self-maps on satisfying (5), (6), and (38). Then , , , and have a unique common fixed point.*

*Proof. *Without loss of generality, we assume that and the pair satisfies property; then there exists some sequence in such that and converge to , for some in as .

Since there exists a sequence in such that ; hence as .

Now, we claim that .

Let .

Taking and in (5), we have
Letting , we have
Subsequently, we have , , , and that converge to .

Now, we claim that .

Taking and in (5), we have
Letting , we have
Since the pair is weakly compatible, it follows that .

Also, since , there exists some in such that .

We next show that .

Taking , in (5), we have
Letting , we have
But the pair is weakly compatible; it follows that .

Next, we claim that .

Taking , in (5), we have
Hence, .

Now, we show that .

Taking , in (5), we have
Hence is the common fixed point of , , and .

If and , then (5) gives
Therefore, and the common fixed point is unique.

#### Acknowledgment

One of the authors (S. Kumar) is very grateful to UGC for providing MRP under Ref. F. no. 39-41/2010(SR).

#### References

- A. Branciari, “A fixed point theorem of Banach-Caccioppoli type on a class of generalized metric spaces,”
*Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen*, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 31–37, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - G. Jungck, “Compatible mappings and common fixed points,”
*International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 771–779, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - G. Jungck and B. E. Rhoades, “Fixed points for set valued functions without continuity,”
*Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 227–238, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - M. Aamri and D. El Moutawakil, “Some new common fixed point theorems under strict contractive conditions,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 181–188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - W. Sintunavarat and P. Kumam, “Common fixed point theorems for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces,”
*Journal of Applied Mathematics*, vol. 2011, Article ID 637958, 14 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - C. M. Chen, “Common fixed-point theorems in complete generalized metric spaces,”
*Journal of Applied Mathematics*, vol. 2012, Article ID 945915, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet