Table 2: Functional groups, habitat specifications, and dispersal rates in Raja Ampat Ecospace model.

Functional groupsReef10 m Isobath20 m Isobath200 m IsobathDeep >200 mTLDispersal rate km·yr−1Dispersal rate reference

Mysticetae++3.4910000[92]
Piscivorous odontocetae+++4.221000[93]
Deepdiving odontocetae++4.0510000[94]
Dugongs++2.00300(default)
Birds+++++3.59300(default)
Reef associated turtles+++3.271000 [95]
Green turtles++++2.201000[96, 97]
Oceanic turtles++++3.4410000[98]
Crocodiles++3.98300(default)
Adult groupers+3.6530[56]
Subadult groupers+3.70220[99, 100]
Juvenile groupers+3.70100[59]
Adult snappers+3.7230[56]
Subadult snappers+3.66350[99, 100]
Juvenile snappers+3.85150[59]
Adult Napoleon wrasse+3.8530[56]
Subadult Napoleon wrasse+3.62100(guess)
Juvenile Napoleon wrasse+3.40150[59, 101]
Skipjack tuna++++4.091000[102]
Other tuna++++4.051000[103]
Mackerel+++3.791000[104]
Billfish++4.441000[105]
Adult coral trout+3.886[55]
Juvenile coral trout+3.85150[59]
Adult large sharks++4.15300(guess)
Juvenile large sharks+++3.86300(guess)
Adult small sharks++4.28100(guess)
Juvenile small sharks++4.11100(guess)
Whale shark+++++3.821000[106]
Manta ray+++++3.741000(guess)
Adult rays++++3.311000(guess)
Juvenile rays++++3.421000(guess)
Adult butterflyfish++2.975[54]
Juvenile butterflyfish+2.7710[107]
Cleaner wrasse+3.303(guess)
Adult large pelagic++++3.89500[108]
Juvenile large pelagic+++3.64500[108]
Adult medium pelagic++++3.62300(guess)
Juvenile medium pelagic+++3.45300(guess)
Adult small pelagic++++3.59200(guess)
Juvenile small pelagic++++2.63200(guess)
Adult large reef associated+2.9550[54, 56, 57]
Juvenile large reef associated+3.06150[59]
Adult medium reef+3.0850[54, 56, 57]
Juvenile medium reef+2.38150[59]
Adult small reef associated+2.7630[54, 57]
Juvenile small reef associated+2.70100[59]
Adult large demersal++++3.21200(guess)
Juvenile large demersal+++3.47200(guess)
Adult small demersal+++3.61100(guess)
Juvenile small demersal+++3.22100(guess)
Adult large planktivore++++3.39200(guess)
Juvenile large planktivore++++3.481000[108]
Adult small planktivore+++3.23200(guess)
Juvenile small planktivore+++2.521000[108]
Adult anchovy+++3.31500(guess)
Juvenile anchovy+++2.14500(guess)
Adult deepwater fish+3.83300(default)
Juvenile deepwater fish++3.37300(default)
Adult macro algal browsing+2.4750[54]
Juvenile macro algal+2.16100[59]
Adult eroding grazers+2.4550[54]
Juvenile eroding grazers+2.71100[59]
Adult scraping grazers+2.165[54]
Juvenile scraping grazers++2.33100[59]
Detritivore fish++++2.2450(guess)
Azooxanthellate corals++2.502[52]
Hermatypic scleractinian+1.301[52]
Non reef building+1.302[52]
Soft corals++1.752[52]
Calcareous algae+1.002[51]
Anemones+3.155(guess)
Penaeid shrimps++++2.51100[109]
Shrimps and prawns+++2.0230[110]
Squid++3.49300(default)
Octopus+++3.4050[111]
Sea cucumbers+++2.0020[51]
Lobsters++++3.2320[51]
Large crabs++++2.9520[51]
Small crabs+++2.5120[51]
Crown of thorns+2.4720[51]
Giant triton+3.3420[51]
Herbivorous echinoids+++2.0020[51]
Bivalves++++2.2020[51]
Sessile filter feeders++++2.3220[51]
Epifaunal detritivorous+++2.0020[51]
Epifaunal carnivorous+++2.9220[51]
Infaunal invertebrates+++2.0120[51]
Jellyfish and hydroids+++++3.10300(default)
Carnivorous zooplankton+++++3.18300(default)
Large herbivorous+++++2.00300(default)
Small herbivorous+++++2.00300(default)
Phytoplankton+++++1.00300(default)
Macro algae+++1.0020[51]
Sea grass++1.006[51]
Mangroves+1.005(guess)
Fishery discards+++++1.0010(default)
Detritus+++++1.0010(default)