Figure 7: (a) Threedimensional finite element models of dental implants with and without threads [12]. (b) Threedimensional finite element model of a bony implant socket with cortical and trabecular bone. Areas (1) and (2) surrounding the implant are designed as an intermediate layer allowing the elastic modulus to be set independently from areas (3) and (4) representing native bone which is not affected by healing processes occurring during osseointegration [12]. (c) Threedimensional finite element model of a single implant embedded in a bone segment consisting of cortical and trabecular bone (calculations were done on a complete model; for illustration purposes the model is cut in half) [12]. 
