- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Mycology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 970216, 6 pages
Four New Species Records of Umbelopsis (Mucoromycotina) from China
1State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Received 18 January 2013; Accepted 15 April 2013
Academic Editor: Marco Thines
Copyright © 2013 Ya-ning Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Four species of Umbelopsis newly found in China, that is, U. angularis, U. dimorpha, U. nana, and U. versiformis, are reported in this paper. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for each of them.
The genus Umbelopsis Amos and H. L. Barnett, typified by U. versiformis Amos and H. L. Barnett, was placed in Deuteromycetes by Amos and Barnett in 1966 . Von Arx  proposed that this genus should be classified in Zygomycetes in 1982. Meyer and Gams  erected the family Umbelopsidaceae of Mucorales to accommodate it in 2003. This family occupies a basal phylogenetic position within the Mucorales . Members of this genus grow slowly and form a velvety layer; sporangiophores typically arise from vesicles on substrates, cymosely or umbellately branched; sporangia are uni- and/or multispored and ochraceous, reddish, or hyaline; columellae are usually small or absent; sporangiospores are variously shaped and have the same color as the sporangia; chlamydospores, if present, are often abundant and mostly intercalary on mycelia [3, 5–8]. So far, 15 species have been described in this genus, 13 of which are accepted by Meyer and Gams  and Mahoney et al. . Three species have been recorded from China by Chen : U. isabellina (Oudem.) W. Gams (as Mortierella isabellina Oudem.), U. ramanniana (Möller) W. Gams (as M. ramanniana (Möller) Linnem.), and U. vinacea (Dixon-Stew.) Arx (as M. vinacea Dixon-Stew.). In this paper, four species newly recorded from soil and plant residues in China are described and illustrated.
2. Materials and Methods
Details of materials studied are presented under the description of each taxon. Strains found in China were isolated using the method of Zheng et al. . For morphological observations, fungi grew at 20°C or 25°C for 6–10 days under natural light on malt extract agar ((MEA) 2% malt extract, 2% glucose, 0.1% peptone, and 2% agar), cornmeal agar ((CMA) 2% cornmeal and 2% agar), and potato dextrose agar ((PDA) 20% potato, 2% glucose, and 2% agar). Maximum growth temperatures were tested twice on PDA. For inducing the formation of zygospores, 0.1% lecithin was added to PDA . Capitalized color designations refer to the Color Standards and Color Nomenclature published by Ridgway .
3.1. Umbelopsis angularis
W. Gams & M. Sugiy., in Sugiyama et al., Mycoscience 44: 221, 2003. (Figure 1).
Colonies on MEA after 5 days reaching 42 mm diam. at 20°C, 1-2 mm high, flat, etruscan red to prussian red (Ridgway, Pl. XXVII), velvety, zonate; on CMA after 5 days reaching 35 mm diam. at 20°C, low, hyaline to slightly vinaceous, sparser than on MEA. Sporangiophores often arising from swollen stalk on substrate mycelia, cymosely branched, 174–379 (–442) μm long, 2.5–5.2 (–6.9) μm wide near the base, and 2.0–3.0 μm near the tip, 2–5 septate, with one near the base and the uppermost one at 18–30 μm below the columella. Sporangia globose to subglobose, (10–) 12–25 (–27) μm diam., reddish or reddish-brown, multispored; walls deliquescent, leaving no or small collars. Columellae globose or depressed globose, 2.0–6.1 μm diam. Sporangiospores angular, 2.5–5.0 μm diam., reddish in mass. Chlamydospores abundant, containing oil droplets, of one or two types: macrochlamydospores 11–26 μm diam., usually intercalary; microchlamydospores 5–8 μm diam., often terminal. Zygospores unknown.
Maximum growth temperature: (35–) 36–38°C.
Distribution: China, Germany, and The Netherlands.
Materials examined: Um-1 (=CGMCC 3.6640, ITS rDNA GenBank KC489475) was isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong, Shennongjia, Hubei, August 7, 1984, Hua-zhong Kong, 401; Um-2 (=CGMCC 3.6639, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815992) and Um-9 (=CGMCC 3.16326, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815994) were isolated from broad-leaved forest soil, Shennongjia, Hubei, September 4, 1984, Hua-zhong Kong, 601; Um-80 (=CGMCC 3.16342, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816010) was isolated from soil, Temple of Soul’s Retreat, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, October 14, 2000, Long Wang, 9683; Um-30 (=CGMCC 3.16335, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816003), Um-39 (=CGMCC 3.16336, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816004), Um-41 (=CGMCC 3.16337, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816005), Um-42 (=CGMCC 3.16338, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816006), Um-43 (=CGMCC 3.16339, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816007), Um-44 (=CGMCC 3.16340, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816008), Um-50 (=CGMCC 3.16341, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816009), and Um-83 (=CGMCC 3.16344, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816012) were isolated from mixed forest soil, 42°10′548′′–44°02′274′′ N, 126°35′399′′–128°55′815′′ E, alt. 360–2654 m, Changbai Mountain, Jilin, July 2011, Xiao-yong Liu, 12447.
Note. This species is different from the other Umbelopsis species in possessing distinct columellae and angular sporangiospores. U. ramanniana is morphologically most similar to this species, except for the shape of sporangiospores which is subglobose to ellipsoid in U. ramanniana [5, 12] but angular in U. angularis. There are two more species having angular sporangiospores, U. dimorpha Mahoney and W. Gams and U. vinacea (Dixon-Stew.) Arx. The former is different from U. angularis in possessing two types of each of the sporangiophores, sporangia, and sporangiospores as described in Section 3.2 and the latter in lacking distinct columellae .
3.2. Umbelopsis dimorpha
Mahoney & W. Gams, in Mahoney et al., Mycol. Res. 108 (1): 109, 2004. (Figure 2).
Colonies on MEA after 5 days reaching 40 mm diam. at 25°C, 1–3 mm high, flat or high in the center and low at the edge, pinkish vinaceous (Ridgway, Pl. XXVII), often with white sectors, velvety; on CMA after 5 days reaching 25 mm diam. at 25°C, low, hyaline to white or slightly pinkish, sparser than on MEA. Sporangiophores having two kinds, short and long: short sporangiophores often present on CMA, arising from distinct vesicles on agar surface or aerial hyphae, simple or cymosely branched, 8–26 μm long, 1.8–2.2 μm wide near the base and 1.2–1.6 μm near the tip; long sporangiophores abundant on MEA, arising from indistinct vesicles or widened hyphae, variously branched, (95–) 197–537 μm long, 2.2–3.0 (–4.0) μm wide near the base, and 1.6–2.4 (–3.2) μm near the tip, septate, with one septum near the base and one or none near the columella. Sporangiola on short sporangiophores, globose, 5–8 μm diam., hyaline, one-spored; sporangia on long sporangiophores, globose, 9.5–17.4 μm diam., reddish, multispored; walls slowly deliquescent, leaving no collar. Columellae absent on short sporangiophores, present on long sporangiophores, subglobose, and 2.5–5.2 × 2.5–6.1 μm. Sporangiospores having two kinds: globose and hyaline in one-spored sporangiola on short sporangiophores, 4.5–7.5 μm diam.; angular in multispored sporangia on long sporangiophores, 2.2–4 μm diam., reddish in mass. Chlamydospores scarce, globose to subglobose, 6–9 × 4–9 μm, often intercalary. Zygospores unknown.
Maximum growth temperature: 39°C.
Distribution: China and New Zealand.
Materials examined: Um-3 (=CGMCC 3.6641, ITS rDNA GenBank KC489477) without substrate information was isolated more than 20 years ago under the name Umbelopsis vinacea and renamed as U. dimorpha in this study; Um-8 (=CGMCC 3.16325, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815993) was isolated from broad-leaved forest soil, Shennongjia, Hubei, September 4, 1984, Hua-zhong Kong, 601; Um-20 (=CGMCC 3.16329, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815997), Um-21 (=CGMCC 3.16330, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815998), Um-22 (=CGMCC 3.16331, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815999), Um-23 (=CGMCC 3.16332, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816000), Um-24 (=CGMCC 3.16333, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816001), and Um-25 (=CGMCC 3.16334, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816002) were isolated from mixed forest soil, 42°10′548′′–44°02′274′′ N, 126°35′399′′–128°55′815′′ E, alt. 360–2654 m, Changbai Mountain, Jilin, July 2011, Xiao-yong Liu, 12447.
Note. This species is distinct from the other Umbelopsis species by having two kinds of each of the sporangiophores, sporangia and sporangiospores. It produces mainly multispored sporangia on MEA as U. vinacea does, while on CMA a number of unispored sporangiola similar to those in U. versiformis are abundantly formed [1, 3, 7]. The number of sporangiospores in sporangia on CMA tends to decrease due to hypotrophy, sometimes containing only three.
3.3. Umbelopsis nana
(Linnem.) Arx, Sydowia 35: 20, 1982. (Figure 3).
≡ Mortierella nana Linnem., Pflanzenforschung 23: 16, 1941 (basionym).
= M. alba Mańka & Gierczak, Práce Komisji Nauk Rolniczych i Komisji Nauk Leśnych 9: 17, 1961.
Colonies on MEA after 5 days reaching 42 mm diam. at 25°C, 2-3 mm high, high in the center and low at the edge, white, velvety, obscurely zonate; on CMA after 5 days reaching 28 mm diam. at 25°C, low, hyaline, sparser than on MEA. Sporangiophores often umbellately branched from distinct vesicles on agar surface or simply branched on aerial hyphae, (12–) 15–50 (–55) μm long, 2.4–3.6 μm wide near the base, and 1.6–2.2 μm near the tip, with one septum near the base. Sporangiola globose or subglobose, 4.9–7.9 μm diam., hyaline, one-spored, containing oil droplets. Collars absent or small. Columellae absent. Sporangiospores globose, 4.5–7.5 μm diam., hyaline, containing oil droplets. Chlamydospores scarce to absent, 4–9 × 6–9 μm. Zygospores unknown.
Maximum growth temperature: 37°C.
Distribution: Belgium, Britain, Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Poland, Russia, Sweden, The Netherlands, Ukraine, and USA.
Material examined: Um-82 (=CGMCC 3.16343, ITS rDNA GenBank KC816011) was isolated from soil under herbaceous ferns, Nanyigou, Milin, Tibet, August 4, 2009, Xue-wei Wang, 12608.
Note. This species is distinct from the other Umbelopsis species by white colonies and unispored sporangiola. It is morphologically similar to U. versiformis, and the difference between them will be discussed in the following section.
3.4. Umbelopsis versiformis
Amos & H. L. Barnett, Mycologia 58(5): 807, 1966. (Figure 4).
= Mortierella roseonana W. Gams & Gleeson, in Gams, Persoonia 9: 112, 1976.
≡ U. roseonana (W. Gams & Gleeson) Arx, Sydowia 35: 19, 1982.
Colonies on MEA after 5 days reaching 45 mm diam. at 25°C, 1-2 mm high, flat, at first white and then pale vinaceous (Ridgway, Pl. XXVII), velvety, obviously zonate; on CMA after 5 days reaching 26 mm diam. at 25°C, low, hyaline, sparser than on MEA. Sporangiophores often arising from distinct vesicles on agar surface or aerial hyphae, simple to successively umbellately branched, (10–) 15–35 (–45) μm long, 1.8–3.0 μm wide near the base, and 1.6–2.2 μm near the tip, with one septum near the base. Sporangiola globose or subglobose, 4.7–7.9 μm diam., hyaline, one-spored, containing oil droplets. Collars absent or small. Columellae absent. Sporangiospores globose, 4.3–7.5 μm diam., hyaline, containing oil droplets. Chlamydospores not abundant, subglobose, 6 μm diam. Zygospores unknown.
Maximum growth temperature: 38°C.
Distribution: Australia, China, and USA.
Materials examined: CBS 150.81 (ITS rDNA GenBank KC489496), roots of a red oak tree (Quercus borealis Michx.), Pendleton County, WV, USA; Um-11 (=CGMCC 3.16327, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815995) and Um-19 (=CGMCC 3.16328, ITS rDNA GenBank KC815996) were isolated from mixed forest soil, 42°10′548′′–44°02′274′′ N, 126°35′399′′–128°55′815′′ E, alt. 360–2654 m, Changbai Mountain, Jilin, July 2011, Xiao-yong Liu, 12447.
Note. The color of colonies is white in the original description of Umbelopsis versiformis . However, the extype strain CBS 150.81 is really white at first but then changes to pale vinaceous when it is reexamined on MEA medium in this study. Meyer and Gams  also noticed the pale pink pigmentation of CBS 150.81. The colonial color of the two Chinese isolates of U. versiformis, Um-11 and Um-19, is a little lighter than that of CBS 150.81, which might reflect the geographic differences within the circumscription of a species. A few chlamydospores are found in both the extype strain CBS 150.81 and the two Chinese isolates, though the original description did not mention this trait .
Umbelopsis versiformis is close to U. nana, and the most remarkable shared characteristic is the one-spored sporangiola. Furthermore, the colony color of U. nana is always white and similar to that of U. versiformis in its protologue . Maybe for these reasons, they were synonymized by von Arx . However, the different color of old colonies, white in U. nana and vinaceous or pinkish in U. versiformis, was discovered in this study and also by Meyer and Gams . Besides, they disclosed that U. nana is different from U. versiformis in ITS rDNA sequences and RFLP data. Based on all these differences, this study agrees with the treatment of Meyer and Gams  to retain them as different species.
Four species were recorded in the present study, raising the number of Umbelopsis species in China to seven. More than half of the total number of Umbelopsis species worldwide could be proven to exist in China so far.
The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 31070016 and 31070019). CBS is gratefully acknowledged for supplying cultures used in this study. The authors thank Ms. Hong-mei Liu of this research group for her assistance with mating experiments. They also thank Ms. Xing-xian Wang for her help in improving the line drawings. Special thanks are due to authors' colleague Professor Yi-jian Yao for acting as a presubmission reviewer.
- R. E. Amos and H. L. Barnett, “Umbelopsis versiformis, a new genus and species of the imperfects,” Mycologia, vol. 58, pp. 805–808, 1966.
- J. A. von Arx, “On Mucoraceae s. str. and other families of the Mucorales,” Sydowia, vol. 35, pp. 10–26, 1982.
- W. Meyer and W. Gams, “Delimitation of Umbelopsis (Mucorales, Umbelopsidaceae fam. nov.) based on ITS sequence and RFLP data,” Mycological Research, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 339–350, 2003.
- M. M. White, T. Y. James, K. O'Donnell, M. J. Cafaro, Y. Tanabe, and J. Sugiyama, “Phylogeny of the Zygomycota based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data,” Mycologia, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 872–884, 2006.
- G. Linnemann, “Mortierella Coemans 1863,” in Mucorales, H. Zycha and R. Siepmann, Eds., pp. 155–241, J. Cramer, Lehre, Germany, 1969.
- M. Turner, “Studies in the genus Mortierella I. Mortierella isabellina and related species,” Tansactions of the British Mycological Society, vol. 46, pp. 262–272, 1963.
- M. Sugiyama, S. Tokumasu, and W. Gams, “Umbelopsis gibberispora sp. nov. from Japanese leaf litter and a clarification of Micromucor ramannianus var. angulisporus,” Mycoscience, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 217–226, 2003.
- D. Mahoney, W. Gams, W. Meyer, and M. Starink-Willemse, “Umbelopsis dimorpha sp. nov., a link between U. vinacea and U. versiformis,” Mycological Research, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 2004.
- F. J. Chen, “Mortierella species in China,” Mycosystema, vol. 5, pp. 23–64, 1992.
- R. Y. Zheng, G. Q. Chen, H. Huang, and X. Y. Liu, “A monograph of Rhizopus,” Sydowia, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 273–372, 2007.
- R. Ridgway, Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, Robert Ridgway, Washington, DC, USA, 1912.
- Y. Ogawa, M. Sugiyama, D. Hirose, K. Kusama-Eguchi, and S. Tokumasu, “Polyphyly of intraspecific groups of Umbelopsis ramanniana and their genetic and morphological variation,” Mycoscience, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 91–98, 2011.